《論語》 Confucian Analects

where analects.htm come from? audio_book ;
《論語》 analects.htm 文字卷的來源? 朗讀論語
update 2015-11-11   更新 104,11,11


請把下面紅字貼入您的網頁,便利大家取閱,謝謝。 103,06,13,01,35 加入
<a href="http://freeman2.com/analects.htm">《論語》全書</a>
Please paste next red line to your web page, thank you. 2014-06-13-01-35 add
<a href="http://freeman2.com/analects.htm">Confucian Analects</a>
If reader intend translate Confucian Analects to third language, please read here first.

民國一◯三年世界留言簿簽文, 《論語》目錄, 學而第一; 建卷 103,05,12
2014 world guestbook sign, Analects list, Book I; create 2014-05-12








<a name=audiolunyu>
104,11,11,07,31 記錄始
104,11,06 劉鑫漢開始整理妹妹交給鑫漢的網路多媒體卷。

104,11,08,20,20 找到妹妹下載的朗讀論語 02:28:24(時:分:秒)
01/02/2014  12:01 AM 142,474,377 analect1.mp3
劉鑫漢開始聽朗讀卷,劉鑫漢暫停整理妹妹下載的網路多媒體卷。
朗讀者是黃欣玉、慧晶、慧慧、靜晨、潔等人,可能的網址是
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tH0odCiayo

104,11,10,11,09 劉鑫漢在 youtube.com 查詢「論語」
https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=%E8%AB%96%E8%AA%9E

104,11,10,11,10 劉鑫漢取閱 
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxP4FfWcxF0QVHXLYI2DVH2tCndZA_a0w

<a name=audio01>
104,11,10,11,12 用 YTD 下載 (YTD=YouTubeDownloader)
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxP4FfWcxF0QVHXLYI2DVH2tCndZA_a0w
[[
 1論語 學而第一 悟勝法師恭讀 12,673,085位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2KbY4tWGYY
 2論語 為政第二 悟勝法師恭讀  9,373,233位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_kkYrUvWCVw
 3論語 八佾第三 悟勝法師恭讀 16,387,866位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WR2k1aDm_do
 4論語 里仁第四 悟勝法師恭讀 13,024,314位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EfWJ5N2EPoU
 5論語 公冶長第五 悟勝法師恭讀 23,765,604位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydF1xbyjZ2Q
 6論語 雍也第六 悟勝法師恭讀 23,084,386位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhghUa3XKm0
 7論語 述而第七 悟勝法師恭讀 21,789,979位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ud1RCQtxFTw
 8論語 泰伯第八 悟勝法師恭讀 16,934,254位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q4pFdHztqN4
 9論語 子罕第九 悟勝法師恭讀 22,775,720位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKELgY86xQk
10論語 鄉黨第十 悟勝法師恭讀 16,067,143位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgsCFQ4LaBE
11論語 先進第十一 悟勝法師恭讀 24,762,340位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jNtKOLP7_Y
12論語 顏淵第十二 悟勝法師恭讀 27,283,512位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cUhTJYno4-c
13論語 子路第十三 悟勝法師恭讀 27,299,858位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7sjEIbu_64
14論語 憲問第十四 悟勝法師恭讀 32,989,864位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTHLUWVE6BU
15論語 衛靈公第十五 悟勝法師恭讀 22,322,470位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INEPW5kewyM
16論語 季氏第十六 悟勝法師恭讀 20,671,193位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lre6W1fMKVs
17論語 陽貨第十七 悟勝法師恭讀 28,229,772位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QX9eijDCnl0
18論語 微子第十八 悟勝法師恭讀 17,321,985位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67_E3KyawR0
19論語 子張第十九 悟勝法師恭讀 19,864,800位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dry-ZXFLHhw
20論語 堯曰第二十 悟勝法師恭讀  9,862,785位元
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHj1Rkr7xlQ
]]

<a name=audio02>
104,11,10,11,50 用 YTD 下載「論語朗讀」 153,633,791位元
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Am_xH0z7Rm8

<a name=audio03>
104,11,10,12,07 發現
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tH0odCiayo
[[
論語 Lun Yu (Analects) read in Chinese 
by 孔子 Confucius - FULL AudioBook | 
Greatest Audio Books 
Published on Jun 30, 2013
]]
就是妹妹下載的朗讀論語。142,474,377位元
<a name=audio04>
104,11,10,12,12 找到 Words of Confucius 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WzX8p37bL74
Published on Nov 8, 2013
8,962 views  3:12:06  697,403,668位元

104,11,10,12,23 用 YTD 下載 Words of Confucius 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WzX8p37bL74

<a name=audio05>
104,11,10,12,28 找到 William Jennings 翻譯
及李菁朗誦的英文版論語全書  286,951,312位元
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3S8CYOcxBGY
[[
Published on Feb 13, 2015
The Analects of CONFUCIUS | Philosophy | 
FULL Unabridged AudioBook 
by Audiobooks on YouTube
727 views  3:32:24
]]

104,11,10,12,34 用 YTD 下載 Analects of Confucius 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3S8CYOcxBGY

<a name=audio06>
104,11,10,22,04 發覺下面兩個網址同是李菁朗誦卷
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Joegoupd4o
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3S8CYOcxBGY

William Jennings
104,11,10,21,54 查詢
https://www.google.com/advanced_search
William 
Analects of CONFUCIUS
https://www.google.com/search?as_q=William+&as_epq=Analects+of+CONFUCIUS&as_oq=&as_eq=&as_nlo=&as_nhi=&lr=&cr=&as_qdr=all&as_sitesearch=&as_occt=any&safe=images&as_filetype=&as_rights=

<a name=audio07>
104,11,10,21,57 取閱
http://www.rodneyohebsion.com/analects.htm
此卷有許多英文版論語翻譯列表。

104,11,10,22,06 查詢
https://www.google.com/advanced_search
William Jennings The Confucian Analects
https://www.google.com/search?as_q=William+Jennings+The+Confucian+Analects&as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&as_nlo=&as_nhi=&lr=&cr=&as_qdr=all&as_sitesearch=&as_occt=any&safe=images&as_filetype=&as_rights=
<a name=audio08>
104,11,10,22,09 取閱
William Jennings 翻譯 ; 李菁朗誦
https://archive.org/details/analects_confucius_1303_librivox
[[
For more free audio books or to become 
a volunteer reader, visit LibriVox.org

01 - Introduction - 09:12

02 - Book 1 - 07:18

03 - Book 2 - 08:33

04 - Book 3 - 12:02

05 - Book 4 - 06:12

06 - Book 5 - 11:08

07 - Book 6 - 10:19

08 - Book 7 - 11:39

09 - Book 8 - 07:55

10 - Book 9 - 09:55

11 - Book 10 - 10:32

12 - Book 11 - 12:56

13 - Book 12 - 12:31

14 - Book 13 - 12:05

15 - Book 14 - 15:42

16 - Book 15 - 10:10

17 - Book 16 - 09:43

18 - Book 17 - 12:26

19 - Book 18 - 07:42

20 - Book 19 - 09:14

21 - Book 20 - 05:07

]]

<a name=audio09>
104,11,10,23,15 用 YTD 下載 William Jennings 翻譯 ;
李菁朗誦英文版論語全書,二十章分章卷,第一卷是簡介,
第二卷是論語學而第一,……,第二十一卷是論語堯曰第二十。
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_01_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_02_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_03_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_04_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_05_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_06_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_07_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_08_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_09_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_10_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_11_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_12_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_13_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_14_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_15_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_16_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_17_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_18_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_19_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_20_jennings.mp3
https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_21_jennings.mp3
所有網址在中華民國一◯四年十一月有效。
104,11,11,09,05 記錄止


<a name=audio_book> 2015-11-11-10-10 start 2015-11-06 Liu,Hsinhan start organize multimedia files which sister gave to LiuHH in past few years. 2015-11-10-12-12 found "Words of Confucius" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WzX8p37bL74 Published on Nov 8, 2013; 697,403,668 bytes 8,962 views 3:12:06(hours:minutes:seconds) <a name=audio21> 2015-11-10-12-23 use YTD download Words of Confucius https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WzX8p37bL74 YTD=YouTubeDownloader <a name=audio22> 2015-11-10-12-28 found William Jennings translate "Analects of Confucius" and Li,Jing read audio file, 286,951,312 bytes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3S8CYOcxBGY [[ Published on Feb 13, 2015 The Analects of CONFUCIUS | Philosophy | FULL Unabridged AudioBook by Audiobooks on YouTube 727 views 3:32:24 ]] <a name=audio23> 2015-11-10-12-34 use YTD download audio file Analects of Confucius https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3S8CYOcxBGY William Jennings translate ; Li,Jing read one file whole book. <a name=audio24> 2015-11-10-22-04 next two URL are both Li,Jing read audio files. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Joegoupd4o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3S8CYOcxBGY William Jennings 2015-11-10-21-54 search https://www.google.com/advanced_search William Analects of CONFUCIUS https://www.google.com/search?as_q=William+&as_epq=Analects+of+CONFUCIUS&as_oq=&as_eq=&as_nlo=&as_nhi=&lr=&cr=&as_qdr=all&as_sitesearch=&as_occt=any&safe=images&as_filetype=&as_rights= <a name=audio25> 2015-11-10-21-57 access http://www.rodneyohebsion.com/analects.htm This file has many "Analects of Confucius" translation works in a list. 2015-11-10-22-06 search https://www.google.com/advanced_search William Jennings The Confucian Analects https://www.google.com/search?as_q=William+Jennings+The+Confucian+Analects&as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&as_nlo=&as_nhi=&lr=&cr=&as_qdr=all&as_sitesearch=&as_occt=any&safe=images&as_filetype=&as_rights= <a name=audio26> 2015-11-10-22-09 access https://archive.org/details/analects_confucius_1303_librivox William Jennings translate ; Li,Jing read 21 files make whole book of "Analects of Confucius" [[ For more free audio books or to become a volunteer reader, visit LibriVox.org 01 - Introduction - 09:12 02 - Book 1 - 07:18 03 - Book 2 - 08:33 04 - Book 3 - 12:02 05 - Book 4 - 06:12 06 - Book 5 - 11:08 07 - Book 6 - 10:19 08 - Book 7 - 11:39 09 - Book 8 - 07:55 10 - Book 9 - 09:55 11 - Book 10 - 10:32 12 - Book 11 - 12:56 13 - Book 12 - 12:31 14 - Book 13 - 12:05 15 - Book 14 - 15:42 16 - Book 15 - 10:10 17 - Book 16 - 09:43 18 - Book 17 - 12:26 19 - Book 18 - 07:42 20 - Book 19 - 09:14 21 - Book 20 - 05:07 ]] <a name=audio27> 2015-11-10-23-15 use YTD download William Jennings translate "Analects of Confucius" and Li,Jing read This is whole book in 21 audio files. File 01 is introduction File 02 is Book I, Hsio R File 03 is Book II, Wei Chang ..... File 21 is Book XX, Yâo Yüeh https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_01_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_02_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_03_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_04_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_05_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_06_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_07_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_08_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_09_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_10_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_11_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_12_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_13_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_14_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_15_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_16_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_17_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_18_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_19_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_20_jennings.mp3 https://archive.org/download/analects_confucius_1303_librivox/confuciananalects_21_jennings.mp3 All URL are valid on 2015-November. 2015-11-11-10-28 stop




<a name="docA0000">

2014 world guestbook sign record a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, s1, s2
2014 world guestbook sign message:
"While his parents are living ... " see docA0419 and "Is there one word which
may guide one person in practice throughout his whole life?" see docA1523
http://freeman2.com/gcircle2.htm#docA067
http://freeman2.com/bioge009.htm#docA003
Liu,Hsinhan got English translation from a book "The Discourses and saying of Confucius"
Viceroy's Yaman, Wuchang, 1st August 1898. Library book number Ch 181.1 C748-1
which is different from current web page analects.htm work by James Legge ,1893
2014-05-13-08-52 record

<a name="docA0001">

學而第一    Book I, Hsio R
0101, 0102, 0103, 0104, 0105, 0106, 0107, 0108, 0109, 0110, 0111, 0112, 0113, 0114, 0115, 0116;

爲政第二    Book II, Wei Chang
0201, 0202, 0203, 0204, 0205, 0206, 0207, 0208, 0209, 0210, 0211, 0212, 0213, 0214, 0215, 0216, 0217, 0218, 0219, 0220, 0221, 0222, 0223, 0224
<a name="docA0002">
八佾第三    Book III, Pa Yih
0301, 0302, 0303, 0304, 0305, 0306, 0307, 0308, 0309, 0310, 0311, 0312, 0313, 0314, 0315, 0316, 0317, 0318, 0319, 0320, 0321, 0322, 0323, 0324, 0325, 0326

里仁第四    Book IV, Le Jin
0401, 0402, 0403, 0404, 0405, 0406, 0407, 0408, 0409, 0410, 0411, 0412, 0413, 0414, 0415, 0416, 0417, 0418, 0419, 0420, 0421, 0422, 0423, 0424, 0425, 0426
<a name="docA0003">
公冶長第五   Book V, Kung-Yê Ch'ang
0501, 0502, 0503, 0504, 0505, 0506, 0507, 0508, 0509, 0510, 0511, 0512, 0513, 0514, 0515, 0516, 0517, 0518, 0519, 0520, 0521, 0522, 0523, 0524, 0525, 0526, 0527

雍也第六    Book VI, Yung Yêy
0601, 0602, 0603, 0604, 0605, 0606, 0607, 0608, 0609, 0610, 0611, 0612, 0613, 0614, 0615, 0616, 0617, 0618, 0619, 0620, 0621, 0622, 0623, 0624, 0625, 0626, 0627, 0628
<a name="docA0004">
述而第七    Book VII, Shu R
0701, 0702, 0703, 0704, 0705, 0706, 0707, 0708, 0709, 0710, 0711, 0712, 0713, 0714, 0715, 0716, 0717, 0718, 0719, 0720, 0721, 0722, 0723, 0724, 0725, 0726, 0727, 0728, 0729, 0730, 0731, 0732, 0733, 0734, 0735, 0736, 0737

泰伯第八    Book VIII, T'âi-po
0801, 0802, 0803, 0804, 0805, 0806, 0807, 0808, 0809, 0810, 0811, 0812, 0813, 0814, 0815, 0816, 0817, 0818, 0819, 0820, 0821
<a name="docA0005">
子罕第九    Book IX, Tsze Han
0901, 0902, 0903, 0904, 0905, 0906, 0907, 0908, 0909, 0910, 0911, 0912, 0913, 0914, 0915, 0916, 0917, 0918, 0919, 0920, 0921, 0922, 0923, 0924, 0925, 0926, 0927, 0928, 0929, 0930


鄉黨第十    Book X, Hsiang Tang
1001, 1002, 1003, 1004, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1008, 1009, 1010, 1011, 1012, 1013, 1014, 1015, 1016, 1017, 1018
<a name="docA0006">
先進第十一   Book XI, Hsien Chin
1101, 1102, 1103, 1104, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1110, 1111, 1112, 1113, 1114, 1115, 1116, 1117, 1118, 1119, 1120, 1121, 1122, 1123, 1124, 1125

顔淵第十二   Book XII, Yen Yûan
1201, 1202, 1203, 1204, 1205, 1206, 1207, 1208, 1209, 1210, 1211, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1216, 1217, 1218, 1219, 1220, 1221, 1222, 1223, 1224
<a name="docA0007">
子路第十三   Book XIII, Tsze-Lû
1301, 1302, 1303, 1304, 1305, 1306, 1307, 1308, 1309, 1310, 1311, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1315, 1316, 1317, 1318, 1319, 1320, 1321, 1322, 1323, 1324, 1325, 1326, 1327, 1328, 1329, 1330

憲問第十四   Book XIV, Hsien Wen
1401, 1402, 1403, 1404, 1405, 1406, 1407, 1408, 1409, 1410, 1411, 1412, 1413, 1414, 1415, 1416, 1417, 1418, 1419, 1420, 1421, 1422, 1423, 1424, 1425, 1426, 1427, 1428, 1429, 1430, 1431, 1432, 1433, 1434, 1435, 1436, 1437, 1438, 1439, 1440, 1441, 1442, 1443, 1444, 1445, 1446, 1447
<a name="docA0008">
衞靈公第十五  Book XV, Wei Ling Kung
1501, 1502, 1503, 1504, 1505, 1506, 1507, 1508, 1509, 1510, 1511, 1512, 1513, 1514, 1515, 1516, 1517, 1518, 1519, 1520, 1521, 1522, 1523, 1524, 1525, 1526, 1527, 1528, 1529, 1530, 1531, 1532, 1533, 1534, 1535, 1536, 1537, 1538, 1539, 1540, 1541

季氏第十六   Book XVI, Chi Shih
1601, 1602, 1603, 1604, 1605, 1606, 1607, 1608, 1609, 1610, 1611, 1612, 1613, 1614
<a name="docA0009">
陽貨第十七   Book XVII, Yang Ho
1701, 1702, 1703, 1704, 1705, 1706, 1707, 1708, 1709, 1710, 1711, 1712, 1713, 1714, 1715, 1716, 1717, 1718, 1719, 1720, 1721, 1722, 1723, 1724, 1725, 1726

微子第十八   Book XVIII, Wei Tzu
1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809, 1810, 1811
<a name="docA0010">
子張第十九   Book XIX, Tzu-Chang
1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925

堯曰第二十  Book XX, Yâo Yüeh
2001, 2002, 2003


above index. below Book I chapter link.


<a name=wholebook>

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《Confucian Analects》and James Legge's descriptions《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

學而第一

Book I: Hsio R

 

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Chapter 1

  子曰:「學而時習之,不亦說乎?有朋自遠方來,不亦樂乎?人不知而不慍,不亦君子乎?」

The whole work and achievement of the learner, first perfecting his knowledge, then attracting by his fame like-minded individuals, and finally complete in himself.
1. The Master said, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?
2. "Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?
3. "Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

 

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Chapter 2

  有子曰:「其爲人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鮮矣。不好犯上,而好作亂者,未之有也。君子務本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其爲仁之本與!」

Filial piety and fraternal submission are the foundation of all virtuous practice.
1. The philosopher Yû said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
2. "The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission! -- are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

 

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Chapter 3

  子曰:「巧言令色,鮮矣仁。」

Fair appearances are suspicious.
The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

 

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Chapter 4

  曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身:爲人謀而不忠乎?與朋友交而不信乎?傳不習乎?」

How the philosopher Tsang daily examined himself, to guard against his being guilty of any imposition.
The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-- whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-- whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-- whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

 

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Chapter 5

  子曰:「道千乘之國,敬事而信,節用而愛人,使民以時。」

Fundamental principles for the government of a large state.
The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

 

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Chapter 6

  子曰:「弟子入則孝,出則弟,謹而信,汎愛眾,而親仁。行有餘力,則以學文。」

Rules for the training of the young:-- duty first and then accomplishments.
The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

 

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Chapter 7

  子夏曰:「賢賢易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;與朋友交,言而有信。雖曰未學,吾必謂之學矣。」

Tsze-hsiâ's views of the substance of learning.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-- although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has."

 

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Chapter 8

  子曰:「君子不重則不威,學則不固,主忠信,無友不如己者,過則勿憚改。」

Principles of self-cultivation.
1. The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.
2. "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
3. "Have no friends not equal to yourself.
4. "When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

 

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Chapter 9

  曾子曰:「愼終追遠,民德歸厚矣。」

The good effect of attention on the part of superiors to the offices of the dead:-- an admonition of Tsâng Shan.
The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-- then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

 

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Chapter 10

  子禽問於子貢曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必聞其政。求之與?抑與之與?」

  子貢曰:「夫子溫﹑良﹑恭﹑儉﹑讓以得之。夫子之求之也,其諸異乎人之求之與?」

Characteristics of Confucius, and their influence on the princes of the time.
1. Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung, saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"
2. Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information! -- is it not different from that of other men?"

 

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Chapter 11

  子曰:「父在,觀其志。父沒,觀其行。三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」

On filial duty.
The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

 

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Chapter 12

  有子曰:「禮之用,和爲貴。先王之道,斯爲美。小大由之。有所不行。知和而和,不以禮節之,亦不可行也。」

In ceremonies a natural ease is to be prized, and yet to be subordinate to the end of ceremonies, -- the reverential observance of propriety.
1. The philosopher Yû said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.
2. "Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

 

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Chapter 13

  有子曰:「信近於義,言可復也。恭近於禮,遠恥辱也。因不失其親,亦可宗也。」

To save from future repentance, we must be careful in our first steps.
The philosopher Yû said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

 

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Chapter 14

  子曰:「君子食無求,飽;居無求,安;敏於事而愼於言;就有道而正焉:可謂好學也已。」

With what mind one aiming to be a Chun-tsze pursues his learning.
The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-- such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

 

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Chapter 15

  子貢曰:「貧而無諂,富而無驕,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若貧而樂,富而好禮者也。」

  子貢曰:「《詩》云:‘如切如磋,如琢如磨。’其斯之謂與?」子曰:「賜也,始可與言《詩》已矣,告諸往而知來者。」

An illustration of the successive steps in self-cultivation.
1. Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."
2. Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.' -- The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."
3. The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

 

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Chapter 16

  子曰:「不患人之不己知,患不知人也。」

Personal attainment should be our chief aim.
The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men.

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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《Confucian Analects》and James Legge's descriptions《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

爲政第二

Book II: Wei Chang

 

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Chapter 1

  子曰:「爲政以德,譬如北辰居其所而眾星共之。」

The influence of virtue in a ruler.
The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

 

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Chapter 2

  子曰:「《詩》三百,一言以蔽之,曰‘思無邪’。」

The pure design of the Book of Poetry.
The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence -- 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

 

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Chapter 3

  子曰:「道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥。道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格。」

How rulers should prefer moral appliances.
1. The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

2. "If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

 

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Chapter 4

  子曰:「吾十有五而志於學,三十而立, 四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順,七十而從心所欲,不踰矩。」

Confucius's own account of his gradual progress and attainments.
1. The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

2. "At thirty, I stood firm.

3. "At forty, I had no doubts.

4. "At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

5. "At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

6. "At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

 

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Chapter 5

  孟懿子問「孝」。子曰:「無違。」

  樊遲御。子告之曰:「孟孫問‘孝’於我,我對曰‘無違’。」

  樊遲曰:「何謂也?」子曰:「生,事之以禮。死,葬之以禮,祭之以禮。」

Filial piety must be shown according to the rules of propriety.
1. Mang Î asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

2. Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him, -- 'not being disobedient.'"

3. Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

 

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Chapter 6

  孟武伯問孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之憂。」

The anxiety of parents about their children an argument for filial piety.
Mang Wû asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

 

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Chapter 7

  子游問孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養。不敬,何以別乎?」

How there must be reverence in filial duty.
Tsze-yû asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-- without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

 

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Chapter 8

  子夏問孝。子曰:「色難。有事,弟子服其勞;有酒食,先生饌,曾是以爲孝乎?」

The duties of filial piety must be performed with a cheerful countenance.
Tsze-hsiâ asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

 

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Chapter 9

  子曰:「吾與回言終日,不違,如愚。退而省其私,亦足以發。回也不愚。」

The quiet receptivity of the disciple Hûi.
The Master said, "I have talked with Hûi for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-- as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hûi! -- He is not stupid."

 

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Chapter 10

  子曰:「視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安。人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?」

How to determine the characters of men.
1. The Master said, "See what a man does.

2. "Mark his motives.

3. "Examine in what things he rests.

4. "How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

 

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Chapter 11

  子曰:「溫故而知新,可以爲師矣。」

To be able to teach others one must from his old stores be continually developing things new.
The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

 

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Chapter 12

  子曰:「君子不器。」

The general aptitude of the Chün-tsze.
The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

 

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Chapter 13

  子貢問君子。子曰:「先行其言而後從之。」

How with the superior man words follow actions.
Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

 

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Chapter 14

  子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The difference between the Chün-tsze and the small man.
The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

 

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Chapter 15

  子曰:「學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆。」

In learning, reading and thought must be combined.
The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

 

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Chapter 16

  子曰:「攻乎異端,斯害也已。」

Strange doctrines are not to be studied.
The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

 

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Chapter 17

  子曰:「由,誨女知之乎!知之爲知之,不知爲不知,是知也。」

There should be no pretense in the profession of knowledge, or the denial of ignorance.
The Master said, "Yû, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-- this is knowledge."

 

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Chapter 18

  子張學干祿。子曰:「多聞闕疑,愼言其餘,則寡尤。多見闕殆,愼行其餘,則寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,祿在其中矣。」

The end in learning should be one's own improvement, and not emolument.
1. Tzu-Chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

2. The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-- then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice:-- then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

 

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Chapter 19

  哀公問曰:「何爲則民服?」 孔子對曰:「舉直錯諸枉,則民服。舉枉錯諸直,則民不服。」

How a prince by the right employment of his officers may secure the real submission of his subjects.
The Duke Âi asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

 

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Chapter 20

  季康子問:「使民敬、忠以勸,如之何?」 子曰:「臨之以莊,則敬。孝慈,則忠。舉善而教不能,則勸。」

Example in superiors is more powerful than force.
Chî K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-- then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-- then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-- then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

 

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Chapter 21

  或謂孔子曰:「子奚不爲政?」子曰:「《書》云:‘孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。’是亦爲政,奚其爲爲政?」

Confucius's explanation of his not being in any office.
1. Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

2. The Master said, "What does the Shû-ching say of filial piety? -- 'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. these qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT -- making one be in the government?"

 

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Chapter 22

  子曰:「人而無信,不知其可也。大車無輗,小車無軏,其何以行之哉?」

The necessity to a man of being truthful and sincere.
The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

 

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Chapter 23

  子張問:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏禮,所損益,可知也。周因於殷禮,所損益,可知也。其或繼周者,雖百世,可知也。」

The great principles governing society are unchangable.
1. Tzu-Chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

2. Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsiâ: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Châu dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Châu, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

 

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Chapter 24

  子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,諂也。見義不爲,無勇也。」

Neither in sacrifice nor in any other practice may a man do anything but what is right.
1. The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

2. "To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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《Confucian Analects》and James Legge's descriptions《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

八佾第三

Book III: Pa Yih

 

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Chapter 1

  孔子謂季氏:「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius's indignation at the usurpation of royal rites.
Confucius said of the head of the Chî family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"


2014-05-12-19-51 Liu,Hsinhan notes:
At Confucius's period, 551BC to 479BC ,
ten rows of pantomimes is for worship heaven (God).
eight rows of pantomimes is for king
six rows of pantomimes is for lower rank officer.
A lower rank officer Chî family had eight rows of pantomimes in his area.
Confucius criticise "eight rows dance in his yard, if we tolerate such behavior (against rule), what else we cannot tolerate?".
2014-05-12-20-02

 

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Chapter 2

  三家者以《雍》徹 。子曰:「‘相維辟公,天子穆穆’,奚取於三家之堂?」

Again against usurped rites.
The three families used the YUNG ode, while the vessels were being removed, at the conclusion of the sacrifice. The Master said, "'Assisting are the princes;-- the son of heaven looks profound and grave';-- what application can these words have in the hall of the three families?"

 

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Chapter 3

  子曰:「人而不仁,如禮何?人而不仁,如樂何?」

Ceremonies and music vain without virtue.
The Master said, "If a man be without the virtues proper to humanity, what has he to do with the rites of propriety? If a man be without the virtues proper to humanity, what has he to do with music?"

 

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Chapter 4

  林放問禮之本。子曰:「大哉問!禮,與其奢也,寧儉。喪,與其易也,寧戚。」

The object of ceremonies should regulate them:-- against formalism.
1. Lin Fang asked what was the first thing to be attended to in ceremonies.

2. The Master said, "A great question indeed!

3. "In festive ceremonies, it is better to be sparing than extravagant. In the ceremonies of mourning, it is better that there be deep sorrow than a minute attention to observances."

 

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Chapter 5

  子曰:「夷狄之有君,不如諸夏之亡也。」

The anarchy of Confucius's time.
The Master said, "The rude tribes of the east and north have their princes, and are not like the States of our great land which are without them."

 

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Chapter 6

  季氏旅於泰山。

  子謂冉有曰:「女弗能救與?」 對曰:「不能。」

  子曰:「嗚呼!曾謂泰山不如林放乎?」

On the folly of usurped sacrifices.
The chief of the Chî family was about to sacrifice to the T'ai mountain. The Master said to Zan Yû, "Can you not save him from this?" He answered, "I cannot." Confucius said, "Alas! will you say that the T'âi mountain is not so discerning as Lin Fang?"

 

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Chapter 7

  子曰:「君子無所爭,必也射乎!揖讓而升,下而飲。其爭也君子。」

The superior man avoids all contentious striving.
The Master said, "The student of virtue has no contentions. If it be said he cannot avoid them, shall this be in archery? But he bows complaisantly to his competitors; thus he ascends the hall, descends, and exacts the forfeit of drinking. In his contention, he is still the Chün-tsze."

 

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Chapter 8

  子夏問曰:「‘巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮,素以爲絢兮。’何謂也?」

  子曰:「繪事後素。」

  曰:「禮後乎?」

  子曰:「起予者商也!始可與言詩已矣。」

Ceremonies are secondary and merely ornamental.
1. Tsze-hsiâ asked, saying, "What is the meaning of the passage -- 'The pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well-defined black and white of her eye! The plain ground for the colors?'"

2. The Master said, "The business of laying on the colors follows (the preparation of) the plain ground."

3. "Ceremonies then are a subsequent thing?" The Master said, "It is Shang who can bring out my meaning. Now I can begin to talk about the odes with him."

 

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Chapter 9

  子曰:「夏禮,吾能言之,杞不足徵也。殷禮,吾能言之,宋不足徵也。文獻不足故也。足,則吾能徵之矣。」

The decay of the monuments of antiquity.
The Master said, "I could describe the ceremonies of the Hsiâ dynasty, but Chî cannot sufficiently attest my words. I could describe the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, but Sung cannot sufficiently attest my words. (They cannot do so) because of the insufficiency of their records and wise men. If those were sufficient, I could adduce them in support of my words."

 

<a name="docA0310">

Chapter 10

  子曰:「禘,自旣灌而往者,吾不欲觀之矣。」

The sage's dissatisfaction at the want of propriety in ceremonies.
The Master said, "At the great sacrifice, after the pouring out of the libation, I have no wish to look on."

 

<a name="docA0311">

Chapter 11

  或問禘之說。子曰:「不知也。知其說者之於天下也,其如示諸斯乎!」 指其掌。

The profound meaning of the great sacrifice.
Some one asked the meaning of the great sacrifice. The Master said, "I do not know. He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern the kingdom as to look on this" -- pointing to his palm.

 

<a name="docA0312">

Chapter 12

  祭如在,祭神如神在。子曰:「吾不與祭,如不祭。」

Confucius's own sincerity in sacrificing.
1. He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present. He sacrificed to the spirits, as if the spirits were present.

2. The Master said, "I consider my not being present at the sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice."

 

<a name="docA0313">

Chapter 13

  王孫賈問曰:「與其媚於奧,寧媚於竈,何謂也?」子曰:「不然!獲罪於天,無所禱也。」

That there is no resource against the consequences of violating the right.
1. Wang-sun Chiâ asked, saying, "What is the meaning of the saying, 'It is better to pay court to the furnace than to the southwest corner?'"

2. The Master said, "Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray."

 

<a name="docA0314">

Chapter 14

  子曰:「周監於二代,郁郁乎文哉!吾從周。」

The completeness and elegance of the institutions of the Châu dynasty.
The Master said, "Châu had the advantage of viewing the two past dynasties. How complete and elegant are its regulations! I follow Châu."

 

<a name="docA0315">

Chapter 15

  子入大廟,每事問。

  或曰:「孰謂鄹人之子知禮乎?入大廟,每事問。」

  子聞之,曰:「是禮也。」

Confucius in the grand temple.
The Master, when he entered the grand temple, asked about everything. Some one said, "Who say that the son of the man of Tsâu knows the rules of propriety! He has entered the grand temple and asks about everything." The Master heard the remark, and said, "This is a rule of propriety."

 

<a name="docA0316">

Chapter 16

  子曰:「射不主皮,爲力不同科,古之道也。」

How the ancients made archery a discipline of virtue.
The Master said, "In archery it is not going through the leather which is the principal thing;-- because people's strength is not equal. This was the old way."

 

<a name="docA0317">

Chapter 17

  子貢欲去告朔之餼羊。

  子曰:「賜也!爾愛其羊,我愛其禮。」

How Confucius cleaved to ancient rites.
1. Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering of a sheep connected with the inauguration of the first day of each month.

2. The Master said, "Ts'ze, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony."

 

<a name="docA0318">

Chapter 18

  子曰:「事君盡禮,人以爲諂也。」

How the princes should be served:-- against the spirit of the times.
The Master said, "The full observance of the rules of propriety in serving one's prince is accounted by people to be flattery."

 

<a name="docA0319">

Chapter 19

  定公問:「君使臣,臣事君,如之何?」

  孔子對曰:「君使臣以禮,臣事君以忠。」

The guiding principles in the relation of prince and minister.
The duke Ting asked how a prince should employ his ministers, and how ministers should serve their prince. Confucius replied, "A prince should employ his minister according to according to the rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness."

 

<a name="docA0320">

Chapter 20

  子曰:「《關睢》,樂而不淫,哀而不傷。」

The praise of the first of the odes.
The Master said, "The Kwan Tsü is expressive of enjoyment without being licentious, and of grief without being hurtfully excessive."

 

<a name="docA0321">

Chapter 21

  哀公問「社」於宰我。

  宰我對曰:「夏后氏以松,殷人以柏,周人以栗,曰,使民戰栗。」

  子聞之,曰:「成事不說,遂事不諫,旣往不咎。」

A rash reply of Tsai Wo about the altars to the spirits of the land, and lament of Confucius thereon.
1. The duke Âi asked Tsâi Wo about the altars of the spirits of the land. Tsâi Wo replied, "The Hsiâ sovereign planted the pine tree about them; the men of the Yin planted the cypress; and the men of the Châu planted the chestnut tree, meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe."

2. When the Master heard it, he said, "Things that are done, it is needless to speak about; things that have had their course, it is needless to remonstrate about; things that are past, it is needless to blame."

 

<a name="docA0322">

Chapter 22

  子曰:「管仲之器小哉。」

  或曰:「管仲儉乎?」

  曰:「管氏有三歸,官事不攝,焉得儉?」

  「然則管仲知禮乎?」

  曰:「邦君樹塞門,管氏亦樹塞門。邦君爲兩君之好,有反坫,管氏亦有反坫。管氏而知禮,孰不知禮?」

Confucius's opinion of Kwan Chung:-- against him.
1. The Master said, "Small indeed was the capacity of Kwan Chung!"

2. Some one said, "Was Kwan Chung parsimonious?" "Kwan," was the reply, "had the San Kwei, and his officers performed no double duties; how can he be considered parsimonious?"

3. "Then, did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety?" The Master said, "The princes of States have a screen intercepting the view at their gates. Kwan had likewise a screen at his gate. The princes of States on any friendly meeting between two of them, had a stand on which to place their inverted cups. Kwan had also such a stand. If Kwan knew the rules of propriety, who does not know them?"

 

<a name="docA0323">

Chapter 23

  子語魯大師樂,曰:「樂其可知也:始作,翕如也;從之,純如也,皦如也,繹如也;以成。」

On the playing of music.
The Master instructing the Grand music master of Lü said, "How to play music may be known. At the commencement of the piece, all the parts should sound together. As it proceeds, they should be in harmony while severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to the conclusion."

 

<a name="docA0324">

Chapter 24

  儀封人請見,曰:「君子之至於斯也,吾未嘗不得見也。」

  從者見之。

  出曰:「二三子何患於喪乎?天下之無道也久矣,天將以夫子爲木鐸。」

A stranger's view of the vocation of Confucius.
The border warden at I requested to be introduced to the Master, saying, "When men of superior virtue have come to this, I have never been denied the privilege of seeing them." The followers of the sage introduced him, and when he came out from the interview, he said, "My friends, why are you distressed by your master's loss of office? The kingdom has long been without the principles of truth and right; Heaven is going to use your master as a bell with its wooden tongue."

 

<a name="docA0325">

Chapter 25

  子謂《韶》:「盡美矣,又盡善也。」

  謂《武》:「盡美矣,未盡善也。」

The comparative merits of the music of Shun and Wû.
The Master said of the Shâo that it was perfectly beautiful and also perfectly good. He said of the Wû that it was perfectly beautiful but not perfectly good.

 

<a name="docA0326">

Chapter 26

  子曰:「居上不寬,爲禮不敬,臨喪不哀,吾何以觀之哉?」

The disregard of what is essential vitiates all services.
The Master said, "High station filled without indulgent generosity; ceremonies performed without reverence; mourning conducted without sorrow;-- wherewith should I contemplate such ways?"

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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0401, 0402, 0403, 0404, 0405, 0406, 0407, 0408, 0409, 0410, 0411, 0412, 0413, 0414, 0415, 0416, 0417, 0418, 0419, 0420, 0421, 0422, 0423, 0424, 0425, 0426

《Confucian Analects》and James Legge's descriptions《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

里仁第四

Book IV: Le Jin

 

<a name="docA0401">

Chapter 1

  子曰:「里仁爲美。擇不處仁,焉得知?」

Rule for the selection of a residence.
The Master said, "It is virtuous manners which constitute the excellence of a neighborhood. If a man in selecting a residence, do not fix on one where such prevail, how can he be wise?"

 

<a name="docA0402">

Chapter 2

  子曰:「不仁者不可以久處約,不可以長處樂。仁者安仁,知者利仁。」

Only true virtue adapts a man for the varied conditions of life.
The Master said, "Those who are without virtue cannot abide long either in a condition of poverty and hardship, or in a condition of enjoyment. The virtuous rest in virtue; the wise desire virtue."

 

<a name="docA0403">

Chapter 3

  子曰:「唯仁者能好人,能惡人。」

Only in the good man are emotions of love and hatred right, and to be depended on.
The Master said, "It is only the (truly) virtuous man, who can love, or who can hate, others."

 

<a name="docA0404">

Chapter 4

  子曰:「苟志於仁矣,無惡也。」

The virtuous will preserves all from wickedness.
The Master said, "If the will be set on virtue, there will be no practice of wickedness."

 

<a name="docA0405">

Chapter 5

  子曰:「富與貴是人之所欲也,不以其道得之,不處也。貧與賤是人之所惡也,不以其道得之,不去也。君子去仁,惡乎成名。君子無終食之間違仁。造次必於是,顛沛必於是。」

The devotion of the Chün-tsze to virtue.
1. The Master said, "Riches and honors are what men desire. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be held. Poverty and meanness are what men dislike. If it cannot be avoided in the proper way, they should not be avoided.

2. "If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfill the requirements of that name?

3. "The superior man does not, even for the space of a single meal, act contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he cleaves to it. In seasons of danger, he cleaves to it."

 

<a name="docA0406">

Chapter 6

  子曰:「我未見好仁者,惡不仁者。好仁者,無以尚之。惡不仁者,其爲仁矣,不使不仁者加乎其身。有能一日用其力於仁矣乎?我未見力不足者。蓋有之矣,我未之見也。」

A lament because of the rarity of the love of virtue; and encouragement to practice virtue.
1. The Master said, "I have not seen a person who loved virtue, or one who hated what was not virtuous. He who loved virtue, would esteem nothing above it. He who hated what is not virtuous, would practice virtue in such a way that he would not allow anything that is not virtuous to approach his person.

2. "Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be insufficient.

3. "Should there possibly be any such case, I have not seen it."

 

<a name="docA0407">

Chapter 7

  子曰:「人之過也,各於其黨。觀過,斯知仁矣。」

A man is not to be utterly condemned because he has faults.
The Master said, "The faults of men are characteristic of the class to which they belong. By observing a man's faults, it may be known that he is virtuous."

 

<a name="docA0408">

Chapter 8

  子曰:「朝聞道,夕死可矣!」

The importance of knowing the right way.
The Master said, "If a man in the morning hear the right way, he may die in the evening without regret."

 

<a name="docA0409">

Chapter 9

  子曰:「士志於道而恥惡衣惡食者,未足與議也!」

The pursuit of truth should raise a man above being ashamed of poverty.
The Master said, "A scholar, whose mind is set on truth, and who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is not fit to be discoursed with."

 

<a name="docA0410">

Chapter 10

  子曰:「君子之於天下也,無適也,無莫也,義之與比。」

Righteousness is the rule of the Chün-tsze's practice.
The Master said, "The superior man, in the world, does not set his mind either for anything, or against anything; what is right he will follow."

 

<a name="docA0411">

Chapter 11

  子曰:「君子懷德,小人懷土。君子懷刑,小人懷惠。」

The different mindings of the superior and the small man.
The Master said, "The superior man thinks of virtue; the small man thinks of comfort. The superior man thinks of the sanctions of law; the small man thinks of favors which he may receive."

 

<a name="docA0412">

Chapter 12

  子曰:「放於利而行,多怨。」

The consequence of selfish conduct.
The Master said: "He who acts with a constant view to his own advantage will be much murmured against."

 

<a name="docA0413">

Chapter 13

  子曰:「能以禮讓爲國乎?何有!不能以禮讓爲國,如禮何!」

The influence in government of ceremonies observed in their proper spirit.
The Master said, "If a prince is able to govern his kingdom with the complaisance proper to the rules of propriety, what difficulty will he have? If he cannot govern it with that complaisance, what has he to do with the rules of propriety?"

 

<a name="docA0414">

Chapter 14

  子曰:「不患無位,患所以立。不患莫己知,求爲可知也。」

Advising to self-cultivation.
The Master said, "A man should say, I am not concerned that I have no place, I am concerned how I may fit myself for one. I am not concerned that I am not known, I seek to be worthy to be known."

 

<a name="docA0415">

Chapter 15

  子曰:「參乎!吾道一以貫之。」

  曾子曰:「唯。」

  子出。

  門人問曰:「何謂也?」

  曾子曰:「夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。」

Confucius's doctrine that of a pervading unity.
1. The Master said, "Shan, my doctrine is that of an all-pervading unity." The disciple Tsang replied, "Yes."

2. The Master went out, and the other disciples asked, saying, "What do his words mean?" Tsang said, "The doctrine of our master is to be true to the principles of our nature and the benevolent exercise of them to others, -- this and nothing more."

 

<a name="docA0416">

Chapter 16

  子曰:「君子喻於義,小人喻於利。」

How righteousness and selfishness distinguish the superior man and the small man.
The Master said, "The mind of the superior man is conversant with righteousness; the mind of the mean man is conversant with gain."

 

<a name="docA0417">

Chapter 17

  子曰:「見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省也。」

The lessons to be learned from observing men of different characters.
The Master said, "When we see men of worth, we should think of equaling them; when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves."

 

<a name="docA0418">

Chapter 18

  子曰:「事父母幾諫。見志不從,又敬不違,勞而不怨。」

How a son may remonstrate with his parents on their faults.
The Master said, "In serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with them, but gently; when he sees that they do not incline to follow his advice, he shows an increased degree of reverence, but does not abandon his purpose; and should they punish him, he does not allow himself to murmur."

 

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Chapter 19

  子曰:「父母在,不遠遊;遊必有方。」

A son not ought to go to a distance where he will not be able to pay the due services to his parents.
The Master said, "While his parents are alive, the son may not go abroad to a distance. If he does go abroad, he must have a fixed place to which he goes."

 

<a name="docA0420">

Chapter 20

  子曰:「三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」

On filial duty. See Book I, Chapter VI.
The Master said, "If the son for three years does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

 

<a name="docA0421">

Chapter 21

  子曰:「父母之年,不可不知也。一則以喜,一則以懼。」

What effect the age of parents should have on their children.
The Master said, "The years of parents may by no means not be kept in the memory, as an occasion at once for joy and for fear."

 

<a name="docA0422">

Chapter 22

  子曰:「古者言之不出,恥躬之不逮也。」

The virtue of the ancients seen in their slowness to speak.
The Master said, "The reason why the ancients did not readily give utterance to their words, was that they feared lest their actions should not come up to them."

 

<a name="docA0423">

Chapter 23

  子曰:「以約失之者,鮮矣。」

Advantage of caution.
The Master said, "The cautious seldom err."

 

<a name="docA0424">

Chapter 24

  子曰:「君子欲訥於言而敏於行。」

Rule of the Chün-tsze about his words and actions.
The Master said, "The superior man wishes to be slow in his speech and earnest in his conduct."

 

<a name="docA0425">

Chapter 25

  子曰:「德不孤,必有鄰。」

The virtuous are not left alone:-- an encouragement to virtue.
The Master said, "Virtue is not left to stand alone. He who practices it will have neighbors."

 

<a name="docA0426">

Chapter 26

  子游曰:「事君數,斯辱矣。朋友數,斯疏矣。」

A lesson to counsellors and friends.
Tsze-yû said, "In serving a prince, frequent remonstrances lead to disgrace. Between friends, frequent reproofs make the friendship distant."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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0501, 0502, 0503, 0504, 0505, 0506, 0507, 0508, 0509, 0510, 0511, 0512, 0513, 0514, 0515, 0516, 0517, 0518, 0519, 0520, 0521, 0522, 0523, 0524, 0525, 0526, 0527

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

公冶長第五

Book V: Kung-Yê Ch'ang

 

<a name="docA0501">

Chapter 1

  子謂公冶長:「可妻也。雖在縲絏之中,非其罪也。」

  以其子妻之。

104,11,09,11,15 記錄。 analects.htm 與 analects.mp3 在此微小差異。
analects.htm 把下面兩行列為第一章後半段。
analects.mp3 把下面兩行列為第二章。104,11,09,11,19

  子謂南容:「邦有道不廢,邦無道免於刑戮。」

  以其兄之子妻之。

Confucius in marriage-making was guided by character and not by fortune.
1. The Master said of Kung-Yê Ch'ang that he might be wived; although he was put in bonds, he had not been guilty of any crime. Accordingly, he gave him his own daughter to wife.

2. Of Nan Yung he said that if the country were well governed he would not be out of office, and if it were ill governed, he would escape punishment and disgrace. He gave him the daughter of his own elder brother to wife.

 

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Chapter 2

  子謂子賤:「君子哉若人!魯無君子者,斯焉取斯?」

The Chün-tsze formed by intercourse with other Chün-tsze.
The Master said of Tsze-chien, "Of superior virtue indeed is such a man! If there were not virtuous men in Lû, how could this man have acquired this character?"

 

<a name="docA0503">

Chapter 3

  子貢問曰:「賜也何如?」 子曰:「女器也。」

  曰:「何器也?」 曰:「瑚璉也。」

Whereto Tsze-kung had attained.
Tsze-kung asked, "What do you say of me, Ts'ze!" The Master said, "You are a utensil." "What utensil?" "A gemmed sacrificial utensil."

 

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Chapter 4

  或曰:「雍也仁而不佞。」

  子曰:「焉用佞?禦人以口給,屢憎於人。不知其仁,焉用佞?」

Of Zan Yung:-- readiness with the tongue no part of virtue.
1. Some one said, "Yung is truly virtuous, but he is not ready with his tongue."

2. The Master said, "What is the good of being ready with the tongue? They who encounter men with smartness of speech for the most part procure themselves hatred. I know not whether he be truly virtuous, but why should he show readiness of the tongue?"

 

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Chapter 5

  子使漆彫開仕。對曰:「吾斯之未能信。」 子說。

Ch'î-tiâo K'âi's opinion of the qualifications necessary to taking office.
The Master was wishing Ch'î-tiâo K'âi to enter an official employment. He replied, "I am not yet able to rest in the assurance of THIS." The Master was pleased.

 

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Chapter 6

  子曰:「道不行,乘桴浮于海,從我者其由與?」

  子路聞之喜。

  子曰:「由也好勇過我,無所取材。」

Confucius proposing to withdraw from the world:-- a lesson to Tsze-lû.
The Master said, "My doctrines make no way. I will get upon a raft, and float about on the sea. He that will accompany me will be Yû, I dare to say." Tsze-lû hearing this was glad, upon which the Master said, "Yû is fonder of daring than I am. He does not exercise his judgment upon matters."

 

<a name="docA0507">

Chapter 7

  孟武伯問:「子路仁乎?」 子曰:「不知也。」

  又問。子曰:「由也,千乘之國,可使治其賦也,不知其仁也。」

  「求也何如?」

  子曰:「求也,千室之邑,百乘之家,可使爲之宰也,不知其仁也。」

  「赤也何如?」

  子曰:「赤也,束帶立於朝,可使與賓客言也,不知其仁也。」

Of Tsze-Lû, Tsze-yû, and Tsze-hwâ.
1. Mang Wû asked about Tsze-lû, whether he was perfectly virtuous. The Master said, "I do not know."

2. He asked again, when the Master replied, "In a kingdom of a thousand chariots, Yû might be employed to manage the military levies, but I do not know whether he be perfectly virtuous."

3. "And what do you say of Ch'iû?" The Master replied, "In a city of a thousand families, or a clan of a hundred chariots, Ch'iû might be employed as governor, but I do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous."

4. "What do you say of Ch'ih?" The Master replied, "With his sash girt and standing in a court, Ch'ih might be employed to converse with the visitors and guests, but I do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous."

 

<a name="docA0508">

Chapter 8

  子謂子貢曰:「女與回也孰愈?」

  對曰:「賜也何敢望回?回也聞一以知十,賜也聞一以知二。」

  子曰:「弗如也,吾與女,弗如也。」

Superiority of Yen Hûi to Tsze-kung.
1. The Master said to Tsze-kung, "Which do you consider superior, yourself or Hûi?"

2. Tsze-kung replied, "How dare I compare myself with Hûi? Hûi hears one point and knows all about a subject; I hear one point, and know a second."

3. The Master said, "You are not equal to him. I grant you, you are not equal to him."

 

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Chapter 9

  宰予晝寢。

  子曰:「朽木不可雕也,糞土之牆不可杇也。於予與何誅?」

  子曰:「始吾於人也,聽其言而信其行。今吾於人也,聽其言而觀其行。於予與改是。」

The idleness of Tsâi Yü and its reproof.
1. Tsâi Yü being asleep during the daytime, the Master said, "Rotten wood cannot be carved; a wall of dirty earth will not receive the trowel. This Yü! -- what is the use of my reproving him?"

2. The Master said, "At first, my way with men was to hear their words, and give them credit for their conduct. Now my way is to hear their words, and look at their conduct. It is from Yü that I have learned to make this change."

 

<a name="docA0510">

Chapter 10

  子曰:「吾未見剛者。」 或對曰:「申棖。」子曰:「棖也慾,焉得剛?」

Unbending virtue cannot co-exist with indulgence of the passions.
The Master said, "I have not seen a firm and unbending man." Some one replied, "There is Shan Ch'ang." "Ch'ang," said the Master, "is under the influence of his passions; how can he be pronounced firm and unbending?"

 

<a name="docA0511">

Chapter 11

  子貢曰:「我不欲人之加諸我也,吾亦欲無加諸人。」

  子曰:「賜也,非爾所及也。」

The difficulty of attaining to the not wishing to do to others as we wish them not to do to us.
Tsze-kung said, "What I do not wish men to do to me, I also wish not to do to men." The Master said, "Ts'ze, you have not attained to that."

 

<a name="docA0512">

Chapter 12

  子貢曰:「夫子之文章,可得而聞也。夫子之言性與天道,不可得而聞也。」

The gradual way in which Confucius communicated his doctrines.
Tsze-kung said, "The Master's personal displays of his principles and ordinary descriptions of them may be heard. His discourses about man's nature, and the way of Heaven, cannot be heard."

 

<a name="docA0513">

Chapter 13

  子路有聞,未之能行,唯恐有聞。

The ardour of Tsze-lû in practising the master's instructions.
When Tsze-lû heard anything, if he had not yet succeeded in carrying it into practice, he was only afraid lest he should hear something else.

 

<a name="docA0514">

Chapter 14

  子貢問曰:「孔文子何以謂之‘文’也?」

  子曰:「敏而好學,不恥下問,是以謂之‘文’也。」

An example of the principle on which honorary posthumous titles were conferred.
Tsze-kung asked, saying, "On what ground did Kung-wan get that title of WAN?" The Master said, "He was of an active nature and yet fond of learning, and he was not ashamed to ask and learn of his inferiors! -- On these grounds he has been styled WAN."

 

<a name="docA0515">

Chapter 15

  子謂子產:「有君子之道四焉:其行己也恭,其事上也敬,其養民也惠,其使民也義。」

The excellent qualities of Tsze-ch'an.
The Master said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four of the characteristics of a superior man -- in his conduct of himself, he was humble; in serving his superior, he was respectful; in nourishing the people, he was kind; in ordering the people, he was just.

 

<a name="docA0516">

Chapter 16

  子曰:「晏平仲善與人交,久而敬之。」

How to maintain friendship.
The Master said, "Yen P'ing knew well how to maintain friendly intercourse. The acquaintance might be long, but he showed the same respect as at first."

 

<a name="docA0517">

Chapter 17

  子曰:「臧文仲居蔡,山節藻梲,何如其知也?」

The superstition of Tsang Wan.
The Master said, "Tsang Wan kept a large tortoise in a house, on the capitals of the pillars of which he had hills made, and with representations of duckweed on the small pillars above the beams supporting the rafters. -- Of what sort was his wisdom?"

 

<a name="docA0518">

Chapter 18

  子張問曰:「令尹子文三仕爲令尹,無喜色。三已之,無慍色。舊令尹之政,必以告新令尹。何如?」

  子曰:「忠矣。」 曰:「仁矣乎?」曰:「未知。焉得仁!」

  「崔子弑齊君。陳文子有馬十乘,棄而違之。至於他邦,則曰:‘猶吾大夫崔子也。’違之。之一邦,則又曰:‘猶吾大夫崔子也。’違之。何如?」

  子曰:「清矣。」 曰:「仁矣乎?」 曰:「未知。焉得仁?」

The praise of perfect virtue is not to be lightly accorded.
1. Tzu-Chang asked, saying, "The minister Tsze-wan thrice took office, and manifested no joy in his countenance. Thrice he retired from office, and manifested no displeasure. He made it a point to inform the new minister of the way in which he had conducted the government;-- what do you say of him?" The Master replied. "He was loyal." "Was he perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?"

2. Tzu-Chang proceeded, "When the officer Ch'ûi killed the prince of Ch'î, Ch'an Wan, though he was the owner of forty horses, abandoned them and left the country. Coming to another state, he said, 'They are here like our great officer, Ch'ûi,' and left it. He came to a second state, and with the same observation left it also;-- what do you say of him?" The Master replied, "He was pure." "Was he perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?"

 

<a name="docA0519">

Chapter 19

  季文子三思而後行。子聞之,曰:「再,斯可矣。」

Prompt decision good.
Chî Wan thought thrice, and then acted. When the Master was informed of it, he said, "Twice may do."

 

<a name="docA0520">

Chapter 20

  子曰:「甯武子,邦有道則知,邦無道則愚。其知可及也,其愚不可及也。」

The uncommon but admirable stupidity of Ning Wû.
The Master said, "When good order prevailed in his country, Ning Wû acted the part of a wise man. When his country was in disorder, he acted the part of a stupid man. Others may equal his wisdom, but they cannot equal his stupidity."

 

<a name="docA0521">

Chapter 21

  子在陳,曰:「歸與!歸與!吾黨之小子狂簡,斐然成章,不知所以裁之。」

The anxiety of Confucius about the training of his disciples.
When the Master was in Ch'an, he said, "Let me return! Let me return! The little children of my school are ambitious and too hasty. They are accomplished and complete so far, but they do not know how to restrict and shape themselves."

 

<a name="docA0522">

Chapter 22

  子曰:「伯夷、叔齊不念舊惡,怨是用希。」

The generosity of Po-î and Shû-ch'î.
The Master said, "Po-î and Shû-ch'î did not keep the former wickednesses of men in mind, and hence the resentments directed towards them were few."

 

<a name="docA0523">

Chapter 23

  子曰:「孰謂微生高直!或乞醯焉,乞諸其鄰而與之。」

Small meanness inconsistent with uprightness.
The Master said, "Who says of Wei-shang Kâo that he is upright? One begged some vinegar of him, and he begged it of a neighbor and gave it to the man."

 

<a name="docA0524">

Chapter 24

  子曰:「巧言、令色、足恭,左丘明恥之,丘亦恥之。匿怨而友其人,左丘明恥之,丘亦恥之。」

Praise of sincerity, and of Tso Ch'iû-ming.
The Master said, "Fine words, an insinuating appearance, and excessive respect;-- Tso Ch'iˆu-ming was ashamed of them. I also am ashamed of them. To conceal resentment against a person, and appear friendly with him;-- Tso Ch'iˆu-ming was ashamed of such conduct. I also am ashamed of it."

 

<a name="docA0525">

Chapter 25

  顏淵、季路侍。

  子曰:「盍各言爾志?」

  子路曰:「願車馬、衣輕裘,與朋友共,敝之而無憾。」

  顏淵曰:「願無伐善,無施勞。」

  子路曰:「願聞子之志。」

  子曰:「老者安之,朋友信之,少者懷之。」

The different wishes of Yen Yüan, Tsze-lû, and Confucius.
1. Yen Yüan and Chî Lû being by his side, the Master said to them, "Come, let each of you tell his wishes."

2. Tsze-lû said, "I should like, having chariots and horses, and light fur clothes, to share them with my friends, and though they should spoil them, I would not be displeased."

3. Yen Yüan said, "I should like not to boast of my excellence, nor to make a display of my meritorious deeds."

4. Tsze-lû then said, "I should like, sir, to hear your wishes." The Master said, "They are, in regard to the aged, to give them rest; in regard to friends, to show them sincerity; in regard to the young, to treat them tenderly."

 

<a name="docA0526">

Chapter 26

  子曰:「已矣乎!吾未見能見其過而内自訟者也。」

A lament over men's persistence in error.
The Master said, "It is all over. I have not yet seen one who could perceive his faults, and inwardly accuse himself."

 

<a name="docA0527">

Chapter 27

  子曰:「十室之邑,必有忠信如丘者焉,不如丘之好學也。」

The humble claim of Confucius for himself.
The Master said, "In a hamlet of ten families, there may be found one honorable and sincere as I am, but not so fond of learning."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

雍也第六

Book VI: Yung Yêy

 

<a name="docA0601">

Chapter 1

  子曰:「雍也可使南面。」

  仲弓問子桑伯子。

  子曰:「可也,簡。」

  仲弓曰:「居敬而行簡,以臨其民,不亦可乎?居簡而行簡,無乃大簡乎?」

  子曰:「雍之言然。」

The characters of Zan Yung and Tsze-sang Po-tsze, as regards their aptitude for government.
1. The Master said, "There is Yung! -- He might occupy the place of a prince."

2. Chung-kung asked about Tsze-sang Po-tsze. The Master said, " He may pass. He does not mind small matters."

3. Chung-kung said, "If a man cherish in himself a reverential feeling of the necessity of attention to business, though he may be easy in small matters in his government of the people, that may be allowed. But if he cherish in himself that easy feeling, and also carry it out in his practice, is not such an easymode of procedure excessive?"

4. The Master said, "Yung's words are right."

 

<a name="docA0602">

Chapter 2

  哀公問:「弟子孰爲好學?」

  孔子對曰:「有顏回者好學,不遷怒,不貳過,不幸短命死矣。今也則亡,未聞好學者也。」

The rarity of a true love to learn. Hûi's superiority to the other disciples.
1. The Duke Ai asked which of the disciples loved to learn.

2. Confucius replied to him, "There was Yen Hûi; HE loved to learn. He did not transfer his anger; he did not repeat a fault. Unfortunately, his appointed time was short and he died; and now there is not such another. I have not yet heard of any one who loves to learn as he did."

 

<a name="docA0603">

Chapter 3

  子華使於齊。

  冉子爲其母請粟。

  子曰:「與之釜。」

  請益。

  曰:「與之庾。」

  冉子與之粟五秉。

  子曰:「赤之適齊也,乘肥馬,衣輕裘。吾聞之也,君子周急不繼富。」

  原思爲之宰,與之粟九百,辭。

  子曰:「毋!以與爾鄰里鄉黨乎!」

Discrimination of Confucius in rewarding or salarying officers.
1. Tsze-hwâ being employed on a mission to Ch'î, the disciple Zan requested grain for his mother. The Master said, "Give her a fû." Yen requested more. "Give her an yü," said the Master. Yen gave her five ping.

2. The Master said, "When Ch'ih was proceeding to Ch'î, he had fat horses to his carriage, and wore light furs. I have heard that a superior man helps the distressed, but does not add to the wealth of the rich."

3. Yuan Sze being made governor of his town by the Master, he gave him nine hundred measures of grain, but Sze declined them.

4. The Master said, "Do not decline them. May you not give them away in the neighborhoods, hamlets, towns, and villages?"

 

<a name="docA0604">

Chapter 4

  子謂仲弓曰:「犁牛之子騂且角,雖欲勿用,山川其舍諸?」

The vices of a father should not discredit a virtuous son.
The Master, speaking of Chung-kung, said, "If the calf of a brindled cow be red and horned, although men may not wish to use it, would the spirits of the mountains and rivers put it aside?"

 

<a name="docA0605">

Chapter 5

  子曰:「回也,其心三月不違仁,其餘則日月至焉而已矣。」

The superiority of Hûi to the other disciples.
The Master said, "Such was Hûi that for three months there would be nothing in his mind contrary to perfect virtue. The others may attain to this on some days or in some months, but nothing more."

 

<a name="docA0606">

Chapter 6

  季康子問:「仲由可使從政也與?」

  子曰:「由也果,於從政乎何有?」

  曰:「賜也可使從政也與?」

  曰:「賜也達,於從政乎何有?」

  曰:「求也可使從政也與?」

  曰:「求也藝,於從政乎何有?」

The qualities of Tsze-lû, Tsze-kung, and Tsze-Yû, and their competency to assist in government.
Chî K'ang asked about Chung-yû, whether he was fit to be employed as an officer of government. The Master said, "Yû is a man of decision; what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?" K'ang asked, "Is Ts'ze fit to be employed as an officer of government?" and was answered, "Ts'ze is a man of intelligence; what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?" And to the same question about Ch'iû the Master gave the same reply, saying, "Ch'iû is a man of various ability."

 

<a name="docA0607">

Chapter 7

  季氏使閔子騫爲費宰。

  閔子騫曰:「善爲我辭焉!如有復我者,則吾必在汶上矣。」

Min Tsze-ch'ien refuses to serve the Chî family.
The chief of the Chî family sent to ask Min Tsze-ch'ien to be governor of Pî. Min Tszech'ien said, "Decline the offer for me politely. If any one come again to me with a second invitation, I shall be obliged to go and live on the banks of the Wan."

 

<a name="docA0608">

Chapter 8

  伯牛有疾,子問之。

  自牖執其手,曰:「亡之,命矣夫!斯人也而有斯疾也!斯人也而有斯疾也!」

Lament of Confucius over the mortal sickness of Po-niû.
Po-niû being ill, the Master went to ask for him. He took hold of his hand through the window, and said, "It is killing him. It is the appointment of Heaven, alas! That such a man should have such a sickness! That such a man should have such a sickness!"

 

<a name="docA0609">

Chapter 9

  子曰:「賢哉,回也!一簞食,一瓢飲,在陋巷。人不堪其憂,回也不改其樂。賢哉,回也!」

The happiness of Hûi independent of his poverty.
The Master said, "Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hûi! With a single bamboo dish of rice, a single gourd dish of drink, and living in his mean narrow lane, while others could not have endured the distress, he did not allow his joy to be affected by it. Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hûi!"

 

<a name="docA0610">

Chapter 10

  冉求曰:「非不說子之道,力不足也。」

  子曰:「力不足者,中道而廢。今女畫。」

A high aim and perseverance proper to a student.
Yen Ch'iû said, "It is not that I do not delight in your doctrines, but my strength is insufficient." The Master said, "Those whose strength is insufficient give over in the middle of the way but now you limit yourself."

 

<a name="docA0611">

Chapter 11

  子謂子夏曰:「女爲君子儒,無爲小人儒。」

How learning should be pursued.
The Master said to Tsze-hsiâ, "Do you be a scholar after the style of the superior man, and not after that of the mean man."

 

<a name="docA0612">

Chapter 12

  子游爲武城宰。

  子曰:「女得人焉爾乎?」

  曰:「有澹臺滅明者,行不由徑,非公事,未嘗至於偃之室也。」

The character of Tan-tâi Mieh-ming.
Tsze-yû being governor of Wû-ch'ang, the Master said to him, "Have you got good men there?" He answered, "There is Tan-t'âi Mieh-ming, who never in walking takes a short cut, and never comes to my office, excepting on public business."

 

<a name="docA0613">

Chapter 13

  子曰:「孟之反不伐。奔而殿,將入門,策其馬,曰:‘非敢後也,馬不進也。’」

The virtue of Mang Chih-fan in concealing his merit.
The Master said, "Mang Chih-fan does not boast of his merit. Being in the rear on an occasion of flight, when they were about to enter the gate, he whipped up his horse, saying, 'It is not that I dare to be last. My horse would not advance.'"

 

<a name="docA0614">

Chapter 14

  子曰:「不有祝鮀之佞,而有宋朝之美,難乎免於今之世矣。」

The degeneracy of the age esteeming glibness of tongue and beauty of person.
The Master said, "Without the specious speech of the litanist T'o and the beauty of the prince Châo of Sung, it is difficult to escape in the present age."

 

<a name="docA0615">

Chapter 15

  子曰:「誰能出不由戶?何莫由斯道也?」

A lament over the waywardness of men's conduct.
The Master said, "Who can go out but by the door? How is it that men will not walk according to these ways?"

 

<a name="docA0616">

Chapter 16

  子曰:「質勝文則野,文勝質則史。文質彬彬,然後君子。」

The equal blending of solid excellence and ornamental accomplishments in a complete character.
The Master said, "Where the solid qualities are in excess of accomplishments, we have rusticity; where the accomplishments are in excess of the solid qualities, we have the manners of a clerk. When the accomplishments and solid qualities are equally blended, we then have the man of virtue."

 

<a name="docA0617">

Chapter 17

  子曰:「人之生也直,罔之生也幸而免。」

Life without uprightness is not true life, and cannot be calculated on.
The Master said, "Man is born for uprightness. If a man lose his uprightness, and yet live, his escape from death is the effect of mere good fortune."

 

<a name="docA0618">

Chapter 18

  子曰:「知之者不如好之者,好之者不如樂之者。」

Different stages of attainment.
The Master said, "They who know the truth are not equal to those who love it, and they who love it are not equal to those who delight in it."

 

<a name="docA0619">

Chapter 19

  子曰:「中人以上,可以語上也。中人以下,不可以語上也。」

Teachers must be guided in communicating knowledge by the susceptivity of the learners.
The Master said, "To those whose talents are above mediocrity, the highest subjects may be announced. To those who are below mediocrity, the highest subjects may not be announced."

 

<a name="docA0620">

Chapter 20

  樊遲問「知」。

  子曰:「務民之義,敬鬼神而遠之,可謂知矣。」

  問「仁」。

  曰:「仁者先難而後獲,可謂仁矣。」

Chief elements in wisdom and virtue.
Fan Ch'ih asked what constituted wisdom. The Master said, "To give one's self earnestly to the duties due to men, and, while respecting spiritual beings, to keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom." He asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "The man of virtue makes the difficulty to be overcome his first business, and success only a subsequent consideration;-- this may be called perfect virtue."

 

<a name="docA0621">

Chapter 21

  子曰:「知者樂水,仁者樂山。知者動,仁者靜。知者樂,仁者壽。」

Contrasts of the wise and the virtuous.
The Master said, "The wise find pleasure in water; the virtuous find pleasure in hills. The wise are active; the virtuous are tranquil. The wise are joyful; the virtuous are long-lived."

 

<a name="docA0622">

Chapter 22

  子曰:「齊一變,至於魯。魯一變,至於道。」

The condition of the States Chî and Lû.
The Master said, "Ch'î, by one change, would come to the State of Lû. Lû, by one change, would come to a State where true principles predominated."

 

<a name="docA0623">

Chapter 23

  子曰:「觚不觚?觚哉!觚哉!」

The name without the reality is folly.
The Master said, "A cornered vessel without corners. -- A strange cornered vessel! A strange cornered vessel!"

 

<a name="docA0624">

Chapter 24

  宰我問曰:「仁者,雖告之曰:‘井有仁焉。’其從之也?」

  子曰:「何爲其然也?君子可逝也,不可陷也;可欺也,不可罔也。」

The benevolent exercise their benevolence with prudence.
Tsâi Wo asked, saying, "A benevolent man, though it be told him, -- 'There is a man in the well" will go in after him, I suppose." Confucius said, "Why should he do so? A superior man may be made to go to the well, but he cannot be made to go down into it. He may be imposed upon, but he cannot be fooled."

 

<a name="docA0625">

Chapter 25

  子曰:「君子博學於文,約之以禮,亦可以弗畔矣夫!」

The happy effect of learning and propriety combined.
The Master said, "The superior man, extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, may thus likewise not overstep what is right."

 

<a name="docA0626">

Chapter 26

  子見南子,子路不說。

  夫子矢之曰:「予所否者,天厭之!天厭之!」

Confucius vindicates himself for visiting the unworthy Nan-tsze.
The Master having visited Nan-tsze, Tsze-lû was displeased, on which the Master swore, saying, "Wherein I have done improperly, may Heaven reject me! may Heaven reject me!"

 

<a name="docA0627">

Chapter 27

  子曰:「中庸之爲德也,其至矣乎!民鮮久矣。」

The defective practice of of the people in Confucius's time.
The Master said, "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the Constant Mean! Rare for a long time has been its practice among the people."

 

<a name="docA0628">

Chapter 28

  子貢曰:「如有博施於民而能濟眾,何如?可謂仁乎?」

  子曰:「何事於仁!必也聖乎!堯舜其猶病諸。夫仁者,己欲立而立人,己欲達而達人。能近取譬,可謂仁之方也已。」

The true nature and art of virtue.
1. Tsze-kung said, "Suppose the case of a man extensively conferring benefits on the people, and able to assist all, what would you say of him? Might he be called perfectly virtuous?" The Master said, "Why speak only of virtue in connection with him? Must he not have the qualities of a sage? Even Yâo and Shun were still solicitous about this.

2. "Now the man of perfect virtue, wishing to be established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others.

3. "To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in ourselves;-- this may be called the art of virtue."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

述而第七

Book VII: Shu R

 

<a name="docA0701">

Chapter 1

  子曰:「述而不作,信而好古,竊比於我老彭。」

Confucius disclaims being an originator or maker.
The Master said, "A transmitter and not a maker, believing in and loving the ancients, I venture to compare myself with our old P'ang."

 

<a name="docA0702">

Chapter 2

  子曰:「默而識之,學而不厭,誨人不倦,何有於我哉?」

Confucius's humble estimate of himself.
The Master said, "The silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning without satiety; and instructing others without being wearied:-- which one of these things belongs to me?"

 

<a name="docA0703">

Chapter 3

  子曰:「德之不脩,學之不講,聞義不能徙,不善不能改,是吾憂也。」

Confucius's anxiety about his self-cultivation:-- another humble estimate of himself.
The Master said, "The learning virtue without proper cultivation; the not thoroughly discussing what is learned; not being able to move towards righteousness of which a knowledge is gained; and not being able to change what is not good:-- these are the things which occasion me solicitude."

 

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Chapter 4

  子之燕居,申申如也,夭夭如也。

The manner of Confucius when unoccupied.
When the Master was unoccupied with business, his manner was easy, and he looked pleased.

 

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Chapter 5

  子曰:「甚矣吾衰也!久矣吾不復夢見周公!」

How the disappointment of Confucius's hopes affected even his dreams.
The Master said, "Extreme is my decay. For a long time, I have not dreamed, as I was wont to do, that I saw the duke of Châu."

 

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Chapter 6

  子曰:「志於道,據於德,依於仁,遊於藝。」

Rules for the full maturing of character.
1. The Master said, "Let the will be set on the path of duty.

2. "Let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped.

3. "Let perfect virtue be accorded with.

4. "Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite arts."

 

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Chapter 7

  子曰:「自行束脩以上,吾未嘗無誨焉。」

The readiness of Confucius to impart instruction.
The Master said, "From the man bringing his bundle of dried flesh for my teaching upwards, I have never refused instruction to any one."

 

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Chapter 8

  子曰:「不憤不啟,不悱不發。舉一隅不以三隅反,則不復也。」

Confucius required a real desire and ability in his disciples.
The Master said, "I do not open up the truth to one who is not eager to get knowledge, nor help out any one who is not anxious to explain himself. When I have presented one corner of a subject to any one, and he cannot from it learn the other three, I do not repeat my lesson."

 

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Chapter 9

  子食於有喪者之側,未嘗飽也。

  子於是日哭,則不歌。

Confucius's sympathy with mourners.
1. When the Master was eating by the side of a mourner, he never ate to the full.

2. He did not sing on the same day in which he had been weeping.

 

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Chapter 10

  子謂顏淵曰:「用之則行,舍之則藏,唯我與爾有是夫。」

  子路曰:「子行三軍,則誰與?」

  子曰:「暴虎馮河,死而無悔者,吾不與也。必也臨事而懼,好謀而成者也。」

The attainments of Hûi like those of Confucius. The excessive boldness of Tsze-lû.
1. The Master said to Yen Yuan, "When called to office, to undertake its duties; when not so called, to lie retired;-- it is only I and you who have attained to this."

2. Tsze-lû said, "If you had the conduct of the armies of a great state, whom would you have to act with you?"

3. The Master said, "I would not have him to act with me, who will unarmed attack a tiger, or cross a river without a boat, dying without any regret. My associate must be the man who proceeds to action full of solicitude, who is fond of adjusting his plans, and then carries them into execution."

 

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Chapter 11

  子曰:「富而可求也,雖執鞭之士,吾亦爲之。如不可求,從吾所好。」

The uncertainty and folly of the pursuit of riches.
The Master said, "If the search for riches is sure to be successful, though I should become a groom with whip in hand to get them, I will do so. As the search may not be successful, I will follow after that which I love."

 

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Chapter 12

  子之所愼:齊,戰,疾。

What things Confucius was particularly careful about.
The things in reference to which the Master exercised the greatest caution were -- fasting, war, and sickness.

 

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Chapter 13

  子在齊聞《韶》,三月不知肉味,曰:「不圖爲樂之至於斯也。」

The effect of music on Confucius.
When the Master was in Ch'î, he heard the Shâo, and for three months did not know the taste of flesh. "I did not think'" he said, "that music could have been made so excellent as this."

 

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Chapter 14

  冉有曰:「夫子爲衞君乎?」

  子貢曰:「諾,吾將問之。」

  入,曰:「伯夷﹑叔齊何人也?」

  曰:「古之賢人也。」

  曰:「怨乎?」

  曰:「求仁而得仁,又何怨?」

  出曰:「夫子不爲也。」

Confucius did not approve of a son opposing his father.
1. Yen Yû said, "Is our Master for the ruler of Wei?" Tsze-kung said, "Oh! I will ask him."

2. He went in accordingly, and said, "What sort of men were Po-î and Shû-ch'i?" "They were ancient worthies," said the Master. "Did they have any repinings because of their course?" The Master again replied, "They sought to act virtuously, and they did so; what was there for them to repine about?" On this, Tsze-kung went out and said, "Our Master is not for him."

 

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Chapter 15

  子曰:「飯疏食,飲水,曲肱而枕之,樂亦在其中矣。不義而富且貴,於我如浮雲。」

The joy of Confucius independent of outward circumstances.
The Master said, "With coarse rice to eat, with water to drink, and my bended arm for a pillow;-- I have still joy in the midst of these things. Riches and honors acquired by unrighteousness, are to me as a floating cloud."

 

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Chapter 16

  子曰:「加我數年,五十以學《易》,可以無大過矣。」

The value which Confucius set upon the study of the Yî.
The Master said, "If some years were added to my life, I would give fifty to the study of the Yî, and then I might come to be without great faults."

 

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Chapter 17

  子所雅言,《詩》﹑《書》﹑執禮,皆雅言也。

Confucius's most common topics.
The Master's frequent themes of discourse were -- the Odes, the History, and the maintenance of the Rules of Propriety. On all these he frequently discoursed.

 

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Chapter 18

  葉公問孔子於子路,子路不對。

  子曰:「女奚不曰,其爲人也,發憤忘食,樂以忘憂,不知老之將至云爾。」

Confucius's description of his own character, as being simply a cheerful, earnest learner.
1. The Duke of Sheh asked Tsze-lû about Confucius, and Tsze-lû did not answer him.

2. The Master said, "Why did you not say to him, -- He is simply a man, who in his eager pursuit of knowledge forgets his food, who in the joy of its attainment forgets his sorrows, and who does not perceive that old age is coming on?"

 

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Chapter 19

  子曰:「我非生而知之者。好古,敏以求之者也。」

Confucius's knowledge not connate, but the result of his study of antiquity.
The Master said, "I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there."

 

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Chapter 20

  子不語怪、力、亂、神。

Subjects avoided by Confucius in his conversation.
The subjects on which the Master did not talk, were -- extraordinary things, feats of strength, disorder, and spiritual beings.

 

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Chapter 21

  子曰:「三人行,必有我師焉。擇其善者而從之,其不善者而改之。」

How a man may find instructors for himself.
The Master said, "When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them."

 

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Chapter 22

  子曰:「天生德於予,桓魋其如予何?」

Confucius calm in danger, through the assurance of having a divine mission.
The Master said, "Heaven produced the virtue that is in me. Hwan T'ûi -- what can he do to me?"

 

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Chapter 23

  子曰:「二三子以我爲隱乎?吾無隱乎爾。吾無行而不與二三子者,是丘也。」

Confucius practised no concealment with his disciples.
The Master said, "Do you think, my disciples, that I have any concealments? I conceal nothing from you. There is nothing which I do that is not shown to you, my disciples;-- that is my way."

 

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Chapter 24

  子以四教:文,行,忠,信。

The subjects of Confucius's teaching.
There were four things which the Master taught, -- letters, ethics, devotion of soul, and truthfulness.

 

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Chapter 25

  子曰:「聖人,吾不得而見之矣。得見君子者,斯可矣。」

  子曰:「善人,吾不得而見之矣,得見有恆者,斯可矣。亡而爲有,虛而爲盈,約而爲泰,難乎有恆矣。」

The paucity of true men in, and the pretentiousness of, Confucius's time.
1. The Master said, "A sage it is not mine to see; could I see a man of real talent and virtue, that would satisfy me."

2. The Master said, "A good man it is not mine to see; could I see a man possessed of constancy, that would satisfy me.

3. "Having not and yet affecting to have, empty and yet affecting to be full, straitened and yet affecting to be at ease:-- it is difficult with such characteristics to have constancy."

 

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Chapter 26

  子釣而不綱,弋不射宿。

The humanity of Confucius.
The Master angled, -- but did not use a net. He shot, -- but not at birds perching.

 

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Chapter 27

  子曰:「蓋有不知而作之者,我無是也。多聞,擇其善者而從之,多見而識之。知之次也。」

Against acting heedlessly.
The Master said, "There may be those who act without knowing why. I do not do so. Hearing much and selecting what is good and following it; seeing much and keeping it in memory:-- this is the second style of knowledge."

 

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Chapter 28

  互鄉難與言。童子見。門人惑。

  子曰:「與其進也,不與其退也,唯何甚?人絜己以進,與其絜也,不保其往也。」

The readiness of Confucius to meet approaches to him though made by the unlikely.
1. It was difficult to talk (profitably and reputably) with the people of Hû-hsiang, and a lad of that place having had an interview with the Master, the disciples doubted.

2. The Master said, "I admit people's approach to me without committing myself as to what they may do when they have retired. Why must one be so severe? If a man purify himself to wait upon me, I receive him so purified, without guaranteeing his past conduct."

 

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Chapter 29

  子曰:「仁遠乎哉?我欲仁,斯仁至矣。」

Virtue is not far to seek.
The Master said, "Is virtue a thing remote? I wish to be virtuous, and lo! virtue is at hand."

 

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Chapter 30

  陳司敗問:「昭公知禮乎?」

  孔子曰:「知禮。」

  孔子退。

  揖巫馬期而進之,曰:「吾聞君子不黨。君子亦黨乎?君取於吳,爲同姓,謂之吳孟子。君而知禮,孰不知禮?」

  巫馬期以告。

  子曰:「丘也幸,苟有過,人必知之。」

How Confucius acknowledged his error.
1. The minister of crime of Ch'an asked whether the duke Châo knew propriety, and Confucius said, "He knew propriety."

2. Confucius having retired, the minister bowed to Wû-mâ Ch'î to come forward, and said, "I have heard that the superior man is not a partisan. May the superior man be a partisan also? The prince married a daughter of the house of Wû, of the same surname with himself, and called her, -- 'The elder Tsze of Wû.' If the prince knew propriety, who does not know it?"

3. Wû-mâ Ch'î reported these remarks, and the Master said, "I am fortunate! If I have any errors, people are sure to know them."

 

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Chapter 31

  子與人歌而善,必使反之,而後和之。

The good fellowship of Confucius.
When the Master was in company with a person who was singing, if he sang well, he would make him repeat the song, while he accompanied it with his own voice.

 

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Chapter 32

  子曰:「文,莫吾猶人也。躬行君子,則吾未之有得。」

Acknowledgement of Confucius in estimating himself.
The Master said, "In letters I am perhaps equal to other men, but the character of the superior man, carrying out in his conduct what he professes, is what I have not yet attained to."

 

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Chapter 33

  子曰:「若聖與仁,則吾豈敢?抑爲之不厭,誨人不倦,則可謂云爾已矣。」

  公西華曰:「正唯弟子不能學也。」

What Confucius declined to be considered, and what he claimed.
The Master said, "The sage and the man of perfect virtue;-- how dare I rank myself with them? It may simply be said of me, that I strive to become such without satiety, and teach others without weariness." Kung-hsî Hwâ said, "This is just what we, the disciples, cannot imitate you in."

 

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Chapter 34

  子疾病,子路請禱。

  子曰:「有諸?」

  子路對曰:「有之。《誄》曰:‘禱爾于上下神祗’」

  子曰:「丘之禱久矣。」

Confucius declines to be prayed for.
The Master being very sick, Tsze-lû asked leave to pray for him. He said, "May such a thing be done?" Tsze-lû replied, "It may. In the Eulogies it is said, 'Prayer has been made for thee to the spirits of the upper and lower worlds.'" The Master said, "My praying has been for a long time."

 

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Chapter 35

  子曰:「奢則不孫,儉則固。與其不孫也,寧固。」

Meanness not so bad as insubordination.
The Master said, "Extravagance leads to insubordination, and parsimony to meanness. It is better to be mean than to be insubordinate."

 

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Chapter 36

  子曰:「君子坦蕩蕩,小人長戚戚。」

Contrast in their feelings between the Chün-tsze and the mean man.
The Master said, "The superior man is satisfied and composed; the mean man is always full of distress."

 

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Chapter 37

  子溫而厲,威而不猛,恭而安。

How various elements modified one another in the character of Confucius.
The Master was mild, and yet dignified; majestic, and yet not fierce; respectful, and yet easy.

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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0801, 0802, 0803, 0804, 0805, 0806, 0807, 0808, 0809, 0810, 0811, 0812, 0813, 0814, 0815, 0816, 0817, 0818, 0819, 0820, 0821

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

泰伯第八

Book VIII: T'âi-po

 

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Chapter 1

  子曰:「泰伯,其可謂至德也已矣。三以天下讓,民無得而稱焉。」

The exceeding virtue of T'âi-po.
The Master said, "T'âi-po may be said to have reached the highest point of virtuous action. Thrice he declined the kingdom, and the people in ignorance of his motives could not express their approbation of his conduct."

 

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Chapter 2

  子曰:「恭而無禮則勞,愼而無禮則葸,勇而無禮則亂,直而無禮則絞。君子篤於親,則民興於仁。故舊不遺,則民不偷。」

The value of the rules of propriety; and of example in those in high stations.
1. The Master said, "Respectfulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes timidity; boldness, without the rules of propriety, becomes insubordination; straightforwardness, without the rules of propriety, becomes rudeness.

2. "When those who are in high stations perform well all their duties to their relations, the people are aroused to virtue. When old friends are not neglected by them, the people are preserved from meanness."

 

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Chapter 3

  曾子有疾,召門弟子曰:「啟予足!啟予手!《詩》云:‘戰戰兢兢,如臨深淵,如履薄冰。’而今而後,吾知免夫!小子!」

The philosopher Tsang's filial piety seen in his care of his person.
The philosopher Tsang being ill, he cared to him the disciples of his school, and said, "Uncover my feet, uncover my hands. It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'We should be apprehensive and cautious, as if on the brink of a deep gulf, as if treading on thin ice, I and so have I been. Now and hereafter, I know my escape from all injury to my person. O ye, my little children."

 

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Chapter 4

  曾子有疾,孟敬子問之。

  曾子言曰:「鳥之將死,其鳴也哀;人之將死,其言也善。君子所貴乎道者三:動容貌,斯遠暴慢矣;正顏色,斯近信矣;出辭氣,斯遠鄙倍矣。籩豆之事,則有司存。」

The philosopher Tsang's dying counsels to a man of high rank.
1. The philosopher Tsang being ill, Meng Chang went to ask how he was.

2. Tsang said to him, "When a bird is about to die, its notes are mournful; when a man is about to die, his words are good.

3. "There are three principles of conduct which the man of high rank should consider specially important:-- that in his deportment and manner he keep from violence and heedlessness; that in regulating his countenance he keep near to sincerity; and that in his words and tones he keep far from lowness and impropriety. As to such matters as attending to the sacrificial vessels, there are the proper officers for them."

 

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Chapter 5

  曾子曰:「以能問於不能,以多問於寡,有若無,實若虛,犯而不校。昔者吾友嘗從事於斯矣。」

The admirable simplicity and freedom from egotism of a friend of the philosopher Tsang.
The philosopher Tsang said, "Gifted with ability, and yet putting questions to those who were not so; possessed of much, and yet putting questions to those possessed of little; having, as though he had not; full, and yet counting himself as empty; offended against, and yet entering into no altercation; formerly I had a friend who pursued this style of conduct."

 

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Chapter 6

  曾子曰:「可以託六尺之孤,可以寄百里之命,臨大節而不可奪也。君子人與?君子人也。」

A combination of talents and virtue constituting a Chün-tsze.
The philosopher Tsang said, "Suppose that there is an individual who can be entrusted with the charge of a young orphan prince, and can be commissioned with authority over a state of a hundred lî, and whom no emergency however great can drive from his principles:-- is such a man a superior man? He is a superior man indeed."

 

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Chapter 7

  曾子曰:「士不可以不弘毅,任重而道遠。仁以爲己任,不亦重乎?死而後已,不亦遠乎?」

The necessity to the officer of compass and vigor of mind.
1. The philosopher Tsang said, "The officer may not be without breadth of mind and vigorous endurance. His burden is heavy and his course is long.

2. "Perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is his to sustain;-- is it not heavy? Only with death does his course stop;-- is it not long?

 

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Chapter 8

  子曰:「興於《詩》,立於禮,成於樂。」

The effects of poetry, proprieties, and music.
1. The Master said, "It is by the Odes that the mind is aroused.

2. "It is by the Rules of Propriety that the character is established.

3. "It is from Music that the finish is received."

 

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Chapter 9

  子曰:「民可使由之,不可使知之。」

What may, and what may not be attained to with the people.
The Master said, "The people may be made to follow a path of action, but they may not be made to understand it."

 

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Chapter 10

  子曰:「好勇疾貧,亂也。人而不仁,疾之已甚,亂也。」

Different causes of insubordination;-- a lesson to rulers.
The Master said, "The man who is fond of daring and is dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to insubordination. So will the man who is not virtuous, when you carry your dislike of him to an extreme."

 

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Chapter 11

  子曰:「如有周公之才之美,使驕且吝,其餘不足觀也已。」

The worthlessness of talent without virtue.
The Master said, "Though a man have abilities as admirable as those of the duke of Châu, yet if he be proud and niggardly, those other things are really not worth being looked at."

 

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Chapter 12

  子曰:「三年學,不至於穀,不易得也。」

How quickly learning makes men good.
The Master said, "It is not easy to find a man who has learned for three years without coming to be good."

 

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Chapter 13

  子曰:「篤信好學,守死善道。危邦不入,亂邦不居。天下有道則見,無道則隱。邦有道,貧且賤焉,恥也。邦無道,富且貴焉,恥也。」

The qualifications of an officer, who will always act right in accepting and declining office.
1. The Master said, "With sincere faith he unites the love of learning; holding firm to death, he is perfecting the excellence of his course.

2. "Such a one will not enter a tottering state, nor dwell in a disorganized one. When right principles of government prevail in the kingdom, he will show himself; when they are prostrated, he will keep concealed.

3. "When a country is well governed, poverty and a mean condition are things to be ashamed of. When a country is ill governed, riches and honor are things to be ashamed of."

 

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Chapter 14

  子曰:「不在其位,不謀其政。」

Every man should mind his own business.
The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties."

 

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Chapter 15

  子曰:「師摯之始,《關睢》之亂,洋洋乎盈耳哉。」

The praise of the music-master Chih.
The Master said, "When the music master Chih first entered on his office, the finish of the Kwan Tsu was magnificent;-- how it filled the ears!"

 

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Chapter 16

  子曰:「狂而不直,侗而不愿,悾悾而不信,吾不知之矣。」

A lamentation over moral error added to natural defect.
The Master said, "Ardent and yet not upright, stupid and yet not attentive; simple and yet not sincere:-- such persons I do not understand."

 

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Chapter 17

  子曰:「學如不及,猶恐失之。」

With what earnestness and continuousness learning should be pursued.
The Master said, "Learn as if you could not reach your object, and were always fearing also lest you should lose it."

 

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Chapter 18

  子曰:「巍巍乎,舜、禹之有天下也,而不與焉。」

The lofty character of Shun and Yü.
The Master said, "How majestic was the manner in which Shun and Yü held possession of the empire, as if it were nothing to them!"

 

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Chapter 19

  子曰:「大哉堯之爲君也!巍巍乎,唯天爲大,唯堯則之。蕩蕩乎,民無能名焉。巍巍乎,其有成功也。煥乎,其有文章。」

The praise of Yâo.
1. The Master said, "Great indeed was Yâo as a sovereign! How majestic was he! It is only Heaven that is grand, and only Yâo corresponded to it. How vast was his virtue! The people could find no name for it.

2. "How majestic was he in the works which he accomplished! How glorious in the elegant regulations which he instituted!"

 

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Chapter 20

  舜有臣五人,而天下治。

  武王曰:「予有亂臣十人。」

  孔子曰:「才難,不其然乎?唐、虞之際,於斯爲盛。有婦人焉,九人而已,三分天下有其二,以服事殷。周之德,其可謂至德也已矣。」

The scarcity of men of talent, and praise of the house of Châu.
1. Shun had five ministers, and the empire was well governed.

2. King Wû said, "I have ten able ministers."

3. Confucius said, "Is not the saying that talents are difficult to find, true? Only when the dynasties of T'ang and Yü met, were they more abundant than in this of Châu, yet there was a woman among them. The able ministers were no more than nine men.

4. "King Wan possessed two of the three parts of the empire, and with those he served the dynasty of Yin. The virtue of the house of Châu may be said to have reached the highest point indeed."

 

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Chapter 21

  子曰:「禹,吾無間然矣。菲飲食而致孝乎鬼神,惡衣服而致美乎黻冕,卑宮室而盡力乎溝洫。禹,吾無間然矣。」

The praise of Yü.
The Master said, "I can find no flaw in the character of Yü. He used himself coarse food and drink, but displayed the utmost filial piety towards the spirits. His ordinary garments were poor, but he displayed the utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in a low, mean house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and water channels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yü."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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0901, 0902, 0903, 0904, 0905, 0906, 0907, 0908, 0909, 0910, 0911, 0912, 0913, 0914, 0915, 0916, 0917, 0918, 0919, 0920, 0921, 0922, 0923, 0924, 0925, 0926, 0927, 0928, 0929, 0930

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

子罕第九

Book IX: Tsze Han

 

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Chapter 1

  子罕言利,與命,與仁。

Subjects seldom spoken of by Confucius.
The subjects of which the Master seldom spoke were -- profitableness, and also the appointments of Heaven, and perfect virtue.

 

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Chapter 2

  達巷黨人曰:「大哉孔子!博學而無所成名。」

  子聞之,謂門弟子曰:「吾何執?執御乎?執射乎?吾執御矣。」

Amusement of Confucius at the remark of an ignorant man about him.
1. A man of the village of Tâ-hsiang said, "Great indeed is the philosopher K'ung! His learning is extensive, and yet he does not render his name famous by any particular thing."

2. The Master heard the observation, and said to his disciples, "What shall I practice? Shall I practice charioteering, or shall I practice archery? I will practice charioteering."

 

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Chapter3

  子曰:「麻冕,禮也。今也純、儉,吾從眾。拜下,禮也。今拜乎上,泰也。雖違眾,吾從下。」

Some common practices indifferent and others not.
1. The Master said, "The linen cap is that prescribed by the rules of ceremony, but now a silk one is worn. It is economical, and I follow the common practice.

2. "The rules of ceremony prescribe the bowing below the hall, but now the practice is to bow only after ascending it. That is arrogant. I continue to bow below the hall, though I oppose the common practice."

 

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Chapter 4

  子絕四:毋意,毋必,毋固,毋我。

Frailties from which Confucius was free.
There were four things from which the Master was entirely free. He had no foregone conclusions, no arbitrary predeterminations, no obstinacy, and no egoism.

 

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Chapter 5

  子畏於匡,曰:「文王旣沒,文不在兹乎?天之將喪斯文也,後死者不得與於斯文也。天之未喪斯文也,匡人其如予何?」

Confucius assured in a time of danger by his conviction of a divine mission.
1. The Master was put in fear in K'wang.

2. He said, "After the death of King Wan, was not the cause of truth lodged here in me?

3. "If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish, then I, a future mortal, should not have got such a relation to that cause. While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish, what can the people of K'wang do to me?"

 

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Chapter 6

  大宰問於子貢曰:「夫子聖者與?何其多能也?」

  子貢曰:「固天縱之將聖,又多能也。」

  子聞之,曰:「大宰知我乎?吾少也賤,故多能鄙事。君子多乎哉?不多也!」

  牢曰:「子云:‘吾不試,故藝。’」

On the various ability of Confucius:-- his sagehood not therein.
1. A high officer asked Tsze-kung, saying, "May we not say that your Master is a sage? How various is his ability!"

2. Tsze-kung said, "Certainly Heaven has endowed him unlimitedly. He is about a sage. And, moreover, his ability is various."

3. The Master heard of the conversation and said, "Does the high officer know me? When I was young, my condition was low, and therefore I acquired my ability in many things, but they were mean matters. Must the superior man have such variety of ability? He does not need variety of ability."

4. Lâo said, "The Master said, 'Having no official employment, I acquired many arts.'"

 

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Chapter 7

  子曰:「吾有知乎哉?無知也。有鄙夫問於我,空空如也。我叩其兩端而竭焉。」

Confucius disclaims the knowledge attributed to him, and declares his earnestness in teaching.
The Master said, "Am I indeed possessed of knowledge? I am not knowing. But if a mean person, who appears quite empty-like, ask anything of me, I set it forth from one end to the other, and exhaust it."

 

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Chapter 8

  子曰:「鳳鳥不至,河不出圖,吾已矣夫!」

For want of auspicious omens, Confucius gives up the hope of the triumph of his doctrines.
The Master said, "The FANG bird does not come; the river sends forth no map:-- it is all over with me!"

 

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Chapter 9

  子見齊衰者、冕衣裳者與瞽者,見之,雖少,必作;過之,必趨。

Confucius's sympathy with sorrow, respect for rank, and pity for misfortune.
When the Master saw a person in a mourning dress, or any one with the cap and upper and lower garments of full dress, or a blind person, on observing them approaching, though they were younger than himself, he would rise up, and if he had to pass by them, he would do so hastily.

 

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Chapter 10

  顏淵喟然歎曰:「仰之彌高,鑽之彌堅,瞻之在前,忽焉在後!夫子循循然善誘人,博我以文,約我以禮,欲罷不能。旣竭吾才,如有所立卓爾。雖欲從之,末由也已!」

Yen Yüan's admiration of his master's doctrines; and his own progress in them.
1. Yen Yüan, in admiration of the Master's doctrines, sighed and said, "I looked up to them, and they seemed to become more high; I tried to penetrate them, and they seemed to become more firm; I looked at them before me, and suddenly they seemed to be behind.

2. "The Master, by orderly method, skillfully leads men on. He enlarged my mind with learning, and taught me the restraints of propriety.

3. "When I wish to give over the study of his doctrines, I cannot do so, and having exerted all my ability, there seems something to stand right up before me; but though I wish to follow and lay hold of it, I really find no way to do so."

 

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Chapter 11

  子疾病,子路使門人爲臣。

  病間,曰:「久矣哉,由之行詐也!無臣而爲有臣。吾誰欺?欺天乎?且予與其死於臣之手也,無寧死於二三子之手乎!且予縱不得大葬,予死於道路乎?」

Confucius's dislike of pretension, and contentment with his condition.
1. The Master being very ill, Tsze-lû wished the disciples to act as ministers to him.

2. During a remission of his illness, he said, "Long has the conduct of Yû been deceitful! By pretending to have ministers when I have them not, whom should I impose upon? Should I impose upon Heaven?

3. "Moreover, than that I should die in the hands of ministers, is it not better that I should die in the hands of you, my disciples? And though I may not get a great burial, shall I die upon the road?"

 

<a name="docA0912">

Chapter 12

  子貢曰:「有美玉於斯,韞匵而藏諸?求善賈而沽諸?」

  子曰:「沽之哉!沽之哉!我待賈者也!」

How the desire for office should be qualified by self-respect.
Tsze-kung said, "There is a beautiful gem here. Should I lay it up in a case and keep it? or should I seek for a good price and sell it?" The Master said, "Sell it! Sell it! But I would wait for one to offer the price."

 

<a name="docA0913">

Chapter 13

  子欲居九夷。

  或曰:「陋,如之何?」

  子曰:「君子居之,何陋之有!」

How barbarians can be civilized.
1. The Master was wishing to go and live among the nine wild tribes of the east.

2. Some one said, "They are rude. How can you do such a thing?" The Master said, "If a superior man dwelt among them, what rudeness would there be?"

 

<a name="docA0914">

Chapter 14

  子曰:「吾自衞反魯,然後樂正,《雅》、《頌》各得其所。」

Confucius's services in correcting the music of his native State and adjusting the Book of Poetry.
The Master said, "I returned from Wei to Lû, and then the music was reformed, and the pieces in the Royal songs and Praise songs all found their proper places."

 

<a name="docA0915">

Chapter 15

  子曰:「出則事公卿,入則事父兄,喪事不敢不勉,不爲酒困:何有於我哉!」

Confucius's very humble estimate of himself.
The Master said, "Abroad, to serve the high ministers and nobles; at home, to serve one's father and elder brothers; in all duties to the dead, not to dare not to exert one's self; and not to be overcome of wine:-- which one of these things do I attain to?"

 

<a name="docA0916">

Chapter 16

  子在川上曰:「逝者如斯夫!不舍晝夜。」

How Confucius was affected by a running stream.
The Master standing by a stream, said, "It passes on just like this, not ceasing day or night!"

 

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Chapter 17

  子曰:「吾未見好德如好色者也。」

The rarity of a sincere love of virtue.
The Master said, "I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty."

 

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Chapter 18

  子曰:「譬如爲山,未成一簣,止,吾止也。譬如平地,雖覆一簣,進,吾往也!」

That learners should not cease nor intermit their labours.
The Master said, "The prosecution of learning may be compared to what may happen in raising a mound. If there want but one basket of earth to complete the work, and I stop, the stopping is my own work. It may be compared to throwing down the earth on the level ground. Though but one basketful is thrown at a time, the advancing with it is my own going forward."

 

<a name="docA0919">

Chapter 19

  子曰:「語之而不惰者,其回也與?」

Hûi the earnest student.
The Master said, "Never flagging when I set forth anything to him;-- ah! that is Hûi."

 

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Chapter 20

  子謂顏淵曰:「惜乎!吾見其進也,未見其止也!」

Confucius's fond recollection of Hûi as a model student.
The Master said of Yen Yüan, "Alas! I saw his constant advance. I never saw him stop in his progress."

 

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Chapter 21

  子曰:「苗而不秀者,有矣夫!秀而不實者,有矣夫!」

It is the end which crowns the work.
The Master said, "There are cases in which the blade springs, but the plant does not go on to flower! There are cases where it flowers but no fruit is subsequently produced!"

 

<a name="docA0922">

Chapter 22

  子曰:「後生可畏,焉知來者之不如今也?四十五十而無聞焉,斯亦不足畏也已!」

How and why a youth should be regarded with respect.
The Master said, "A youth is to be regarded with respect. How do we know that his future will not be equal to our present? If he reach the age of forty or fifty, and has not made himself heard of, then indeed he will not be worth being regarded with respect."

 

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Chapter 23

  子曰:「法語之言,能無從乎?改之爲貴!巽與之言,能無說乎?繹之爲貴!說而不繹,從而不改,吾末如之何也已矣。」

The hopelessness of the case of those who assent and approve without reformation or serious thought.
The Master said, "Can men refuse to assent to the words of strict admonition? But it is reforming the conduct because of them which is valuable. Can men refuse to be pleased with words of gentle advice? But it is unfolding their aim which is valuable. If a man be pleased with these words, but does not unfold their aim, and assents to those, but does not reform his conduct, I can really do nothing with him."

 

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Chapter 24

  子曰:「主忠信。毋友不如己者。過則勿憚改。」

See Book I Chapter VIII.
The Master said, "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. Have no friends not equal to yourself. When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

 

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Chapter 25

  子曰:「三軍可奪帥也,匹夫不可奪志也。」

The will unsubduable.
The Master said, "The commander of the forces of a large state may be carried off, but the will of even a common man cannot be taken from him."

 

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Chapter 26

  子曰:「衣敝縕袍,與衣狐貉者立,而不恥者,其由也與!‘不忮不求,何用不臧?’」

  子路終身誦之。

  子曰:「是道也,何足以臧!」

Tsze-Lû's brave contentment in poverty, but failure to seek the highest aims.
1. The Master said, "Dressed himself in a tattered robe quilted with hemp, yet standing by the side of men dressed in furs, and not ashamed;-- ah! it is Yû who is equal to this!

2. "He dislikes none, he covets nothing;-- what can he do but what is good!"

3. Tsze-lû kept continually repeating these words of the ode, when the Master said, "Those things are by no means sufficient to constitute perfect excellence."

 

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Chapter 27

  子曰:「歲寒,然後知松柏之後彫也。」

Men are known in times of adversity.
The Master said, "When the year becomes cold, then we know how the pine and the cypress are the last to lose their leaves."

 

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Chapter 28

  子曰:「知者不惑,仁者不憂,勇者不懼。」

The sequences of wisdom, virtue, and bravery.
The Master said, "The wise are free from perplexities; the virtuous from anxiety; and the bold from fear."

 

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Chapter 29

  子曰:「可與共學,未可與適道;可與適道,未可與立;可與立,未可與權。」

How different individuals stop at different stages of progress.
The Master said, "There are some with whom we may study in common, but we shall find them unable to go along with us to principles. Perhaps we may go on with them to principles, but we shall find them unable to get established in those along with us. Or if we may get so established along with them, we shall find them unable to weigh occurring events along with us."

 

<a name="docA0930">

Chapter 30

  「唐棣之華,偏其反而。豈不爾思?室是遠而。」

  子曰:「未之思也,夫何遠之有?」

The necessity of reflection.
1. "How the flowers of the aspen-plum flutter and turn! Do I not think of you? But your house is distant."

2. The Master said, "It is the want of thought about it. How is it distant?"

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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1001, 1002, 1003, 1004, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1008, 1009, 1010, 1011, 1012, 1013, 1014, 1015, 1016, 1017, 1018

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

鄉黨第十

Book X: Hsiang Tang

 

<a name="docA1001">

Chapter 1

  孔子於鄉黨,恂恂如也,似不能言者。

  其在宗廟朝廷,便便言,唯謹爾。

Demeanour of Confucius in his village, in the ancestral temple, and in the court.
1. Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and as if he were not able to speak.

2. When he was in the prince's ancestral temple, or in the court, he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.

 

<a name="docA1002">

Chapter 2

  朝,與下大夫言,侃侃如也。與上大夫言,誾誾如也。君在,踧踖如也,與與如也。

Demeanor of Confucius at court with other great officers, and before the prince.
1. When he was waiting at court, in speaking with the great officers of the lower grade, he spoke freely, but in a straightforward manner; in speaking with those of the higher grade, he did so blandly, but precisely.

2. When the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.

 

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Chapter 3

  君召使擯,色勃如也,足躩如也。揖所與立,左右手。衣前後,襜如也。趨進,翼如也。賓退,必復命曰:「賓不顧矣。」

Demeanor of Confucius at the official reception of a visitor.
1. When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty.

2. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted.

3. He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird.

4. When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, "The visitor is not turning round any more."

 

<a name="docA1004">

Chapter 4

  入公門,鞠躬如也,如不容。立不中門,行不履閾。過位,色勃如也,足躩如也,其言似不足者。攝齊升堂,鞠躬如也,屏氣似不息者。出,降一等,逞顏色,怡怡如也。沒階,趨進,翼如也。復其位,踧踖如也。

Demeanor of Confucius in the court at an audience.
1. When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him.

2. When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the gateway; when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon the threshold.

3. When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under him, and his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter them.

4. He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he dared not breathe.

5. When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a satisfied look. When he had got the bottom of the steps, he advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings, and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful uneasiness.

 

<a name="docA1005">

Chapter 5

  執圭,鞠躬如也,如不勝。上如揖,下如授,勃如戰色,足蹜蹜如有循。享禮,有容色。私覿,愉愉如也。

Demeanor of Confucius when employed on a friendly embassy.
1. When he was carrying the scepter of his ruler, he seemed to bend his body, as if he were not able to bear its weight. He did not hold it higher than the position of the hands in making a bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to another. His countenance seemed to change, and look apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the ground.

2. In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore a placid appearance.

3. At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.

 

<a name="docA1006">

Chapter 6

  君子不以紺緅飾,紅紫不以爲褻服。當暑,袗絺綌,必表而出之。緇衣,羔裘;素衣,麑裘;黃衣,狐裘。褻裘長,短右袂。必有寢衣,長一身有半。狐貉之厚以居。去喪,無所不佩。非帷裳,必殺之。羔裘玄冠不以弔。吉月,必朝服而朝。

Rules of Confucius in regard to his dress.
1. The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce color, in the ornaments of his dress.

2. Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or reddish color.

3. In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment.

4. Over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn's fur one of white; and over fox's fur one of yellow.

5. The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve short.

6. He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body.

7. When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the badger.

8. When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the girdle.

9. His undergarment, except when it was required to be of the curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below.

10. He did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap on a visit of condolence.

11. On the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and presented himself at court.

 

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Chapter 7

  齊,必有明衣,布。齊必變食,居必遷坐。

Rules observed by Confucius when fasting.
1. When fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth.

2. When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.

 

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Chapter 8

  食不厭精,膾不厭細。食饐而餲,魚餒而肉敗,不食。色惡,不食。臭惡,不食。失飪,不食。不時,不食。割不正,不食。不得其醬,不食。肉雖多,不使勝食氣。唯酒無量,不及亂。沽酒市脯,不食。不撤薑食,不多食。

  祭於公,不宿肉。祭肉不出三日;出三日,不食之矣。

  食不語,寢不言。

  雖疏食、菜羹、瓜,祭,必齊如也。

Rules of Confucius about his food.
1. He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his mince meat cut quite small.

2. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat what was discolored, or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season.

3. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served without its proper sauce.

4. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it.

5. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market.

6. He was never without ginger when he ate.

7. He did not eat much.

8. When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he did not keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days, people could not eat it.

9. When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.

10. Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air.

 

<a name="docA1009">

Chapter 9

  席不正,不坐。

Rule of Confucius about his mat.
If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.

 

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Chapter 10

  鄉人飲酒,杖者出,斯出矣。鄉人儺,朝服而立於阼階。

Other ways of Confucius in his village.
1. When the villagers were drinking together, upon those who carried staffs going out, he went out immediately after.

2. When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the eastern steps.

 

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Chapter 11

  問人於他邦,再拜而送之。

  康子饋藥,拜而受之,曰:「丘未達,不敢嘗。」

Traits of Confucius's intercourse with others.
1. When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.

2. Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received it, saying, "I do not know it. I dare not taste it."

 

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Chapter 12

  廄焚。子退朝,曰:「傷人乎?」不問馬。

How Confucius valued human life.
The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return he said, "Has any man been hurt?" He did not ask about the horses.

 

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Chapter 13

  君賜食,必正席先嘗之。君賜腥,必熟而薦之。君賜生,必畜之。

  侍食於君,君祭,先飯。

  疾,君視之,東首,加朝服,拖紳。

  君命召,不俟駕行矣。

Demeanor of Confucius in relation to his prince.
1. When the prince sent him a gift of cooked meat, he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep it alive.

2. When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted everything.

3. When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his girdle across them.

4. When the prince's order called him, without waiting for his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.

 

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Chapter 14

  入大廟,每事問。

See Book III Chapter XV.
When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked about everything.

 

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Chapter 15

  朋友死,無所歸,曰:「於我殯。」

  朋友之饋,雖車馬,非祭肉,不拜。

Traits of Confucius in the relation of a friend.
1. When any of his friends died, if he had no relations who could be depended on for the necessary offices, he would say, "I will bury him."

2. When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage and horses, he did not bow.

3. The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice.

 

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Chapter 16

  寢不尸,居不客。

  見齊衰者,雖狎,必變。見冕者與瞽者,雖褻,必以貌。凶服者式之。式負版者。有盛饌,必變色而作。迅雷風烈,必變。

Confucius in bed, at home, hearing thunder, &c.
1. In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any formal deportment.

2. When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious manner.

3. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population.

4. When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up.

5. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.

 

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Chapter 17

  升車,必正立,執綏。車中,不內顧,不疾言,不親指。

Confucius at and in his carriage.
1. When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight, holding the cord.

2. When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.

 

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Chapter 18

  色斯舉矣,翔而後集。

  曰:「山梁雌雉,時哉時哉!」

  子路共之,三嗅而作。

A fragment, which seemingly has no connexion with the rest of the Book.
1. Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and by and by settles.

2. The Master said, "There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At its season! At its season!" Tsze-lû made a motion to it. Thrice it smelled him and then rose.

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

先進第十一

Book XI: Hsien Chin

 

<a name="docA1101">

Chapter 1

   子曰:「先進於禮樂,野人也。後進於禮樂,君子也。如用之,則吾從先進。」

Confucius's preference of the simpler ways of former times.
1. The Master said, "The men of former times in the matters of ceremonies and music were rustics, it is said, while the men of these latter times, in ceremonies and music, are accomplished gentlemen.

2. "If I have occasion to use those things, I follow the men of former times."

 

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Chapter 2

  子曰:「從我於陳、蔡者,皆不及門也。德行:顏淵,閔子騫,冉伯牛,仲弓。言語:宰我,子貢。政事:冉有,季路。文學:子游,子夏。」

Confucius's regretful memory of his disciples' fidelity:-- characteristics of ten of the disciples.
1. The Master said, "Of those who were with me in Ch'an and Ts'âi, there are none to be found to enter my door."

2. Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, there were Yen Yûan, Min Tsze-ch'ien, Zan Po-niû, and Chung-kung; for their ability in speech, Tsâi Wo and Tsze-kung; for their administrative talents, Zan Yû and Chî Lû; for their literary acquirements, Tsze-yû and Tsze-hsiâ.

 

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Chapter 3

  子曰:「回也非助我者也,於吾言無所不說。」

Hûi's silent reception of the Master's teachings.
The Master said, "Hûi gives me no assistance. There is nothing that I say in which he does not delight."

 

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Chapter 4

  子曰:「孝哉閔子騫!人不間於其父母昆弟之言。」

The filial piety of Min Tsze-ch'ien.
The Master said, "Filial indeed is Min Tsze-ch'ien! Other people say nothing of him different from the report of his parents and brothers."

 

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Chapter 5

  南容三復白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之。

Confucius's approbation of Nan Yung.
Nan Yung was frequently repeating the lines about a white scepter stone. Confucius gave him the daughter of his elder brother to wife.

 

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Chapter 6

  季康子問:「弟子孰爲好學?」

  孔子對曰:「有顏回者好學,不幸短命死矣。今也則亡。」

How Hûi loved to learn.
Chî K'ang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius replied to him, "There was Yen Hûi; he loved to learn. Unfortunately his appointed time was short, and he died. Now there is no one who loves to learn, as he did."

 

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Chapter 7

  顏淵死,顏路請子之車以爲之椁。

  子曰:「才不才,亦各言其子也。鯉也死,有棺而無椁。吾不徒行,以爲之椁。以吾從大夫之後,不可徒行也。」

How Confucius would not sell his carriage to buy a shell for Yen Yüan.
When Yen Yüan died, Yen Lû begged the carriage of the Master to sell and get an outer shell for his son's coffin.

The Master said, "Every one calls his son his son, whether he has talents or has not talents. There was Lî; when he died, he had a coffin but no outer shell. I would not walk on foot to get a shell for him, because, having followed in the rear of the great officers, it was not proper that I should walk on foot."

 

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Chapter 8

  顏淵死。

  子曰:「噫!天喪予!天喪予!」

Confucius felt Hûi's death as if it had been his own.
When Yen Yüan died, the Master said, "Alas! Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me!"

 

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Chapter 9

  顏淵死,子哭之慟。

  從者曰:「子慟矣!」

  曰:「有慟乎!非夫人之爲慟而誰爲!」

Confucius vindicates his great grief for the death of Hûi.
1. When Yen Yüan died, the Master bewailed him exceedingly, and the disciples who were with him said, "Master, your grief is excessive!"

2. "Is it excessive?" said he.

3. "If I am not to mourn bitterly for this man, for whom should I mourn?"

 

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Chapter 10

  顏淵死,門人欲厚葬之。

  子曰:「不可。」

  門人厚葬之。

  子曰:「回也,視予猶父也,予不得視猶子也。非我也,夫二三子也。」

Confucius's dissatisfaction with the grand way in which Hûi was buried.
1. When Yen Yüan died, the disciples wished to give him a great funeral, and the Master said, "You may not do so."

2. The disciples did bury him in great style.

3. The Master said, "Hûi behaved towards me as his father. I have not been able to treat him as my son. The fault is not mine; it belongs to you, O disciples."

 

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Chapter 11

  季路問「事鬼神」。

  子曰:「未能事人,焉能事鬼?」

  曰:「敢問死?」

  曰:「未知生,焉知死?」

Confucius avoids answering questions about serving spirits, and about death.
Chî Lû asked about serving the spirits of the dead. The Master said, "While you are not able to serve men, how can you serve their spirits?" Chî Lû added, "I venture to ask about death?" He was answered, "While you do not know life, how can you know about death?"

 

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Chapter 12

  閔子侍側,誾誾如也。子路,行行如也。冉有、子貢,侃侃如也。子樂。

  「若由也,不得其死然。」

Confucius happy with his disciples about him.
1. The disciple Min was standing by his side, looking bland and precise; Tsze-lû, looking bold and soldierly; Zan Yû and Tsze-kung, with a free and straightforward manner. The Master was pleased.

2. He said, "Yû there! -- he will not die a natural death."

 

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Chapter 13

  魯人爲長府。

  閔子騫曰:「仍舊貫,如之何?何必改作?」

  子曰:「夫人不言,言必有中。」

Wise advice of Min Sun against useless expenditure.
1. Some parties in Lû were going to take down and rebuild the Long Treasury.

2. Min Tsze-ch'ien said, "Suppose it were to be repaired after its old style;-- why must it be altered and made anew?"

3. The Master said, "This man seldom speaks; when he does, he is sure to hit the point."

 

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Chapter 14

  子曰:「由之瑟,奚爲於丘之門?」

  門人不敬子路。

  子曰:「由也升堂矣,未入於室也。」

Confucius's admonition and defence of Tsze-lû.
1. The Master said, "What has the lute of Yû to do in my door?"

2. The other disciples began not to respect Tsze-lû. The Master said, "Yû has ascended to the hall, though he has not yet passed into the inner apartments."

 

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Chapter 15

  子貢問:「師與商也孰賢?」

  子曰:「師也過,商也不及。」

  曰:「然則師愈與?」

  子曰:「過猶不及。」

Comparison of Shih and Shang. Excess and defect equally wrong.
1. Tsze-kung asked which of the two, Shih or Shang, was the superior. The Master said, "Shih goes beyond the due mean, and Shang does not come up to it."

2. "Then," said Tsze-kung, "the superiority is with Shih, I suppose."

3. The Master said, "To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short."

 

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Chapter 16

  季氏富於周公,而求也爲之聚斂而附益之。

  子曰:「非吾徒也,小子鳴鼓而攻之可也!」

Confucius's indignation at the support of usurpation and extortion by one of his disciples.
1. The head of the Chî family was richer than the duke of Châu had been, and yet Ch'iû collected his imposts for him, and increased his wealth.

2. The Master said, "He is no disciple of mine. My little children, beat the drum and assail him."

 

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Chapter 17

  柴也愚,參也魯,師也辟,由也喭。

Characters of the four disciples -- Ch'âi, Shan, Shih, and Yû.
1. Ch'âi is simple.

2. Shan is dull.

3. Shih is specious.

4. Yû is coarse.

 

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Chapter 18

  子曰:「回也其庶乎,屢空。賜不受命,而貨殖焉,億則屢中。」

Hûi and Ts'ze contrasted.
1. The Master said, "There is Hûi! He has nearly attained to perfect virtue. He is often in want.

2. "Ts'ze does not acquiesce in the appointments of Heaven, and his goods are increased by him. Yet his judgments are often correct."

 

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Chapter 19

  子張問「善人之道」。

  子曰:「不踐迹,亦不入於室。」

The good man.
Tzu-Chang asked what were the characteristics of the good man. The Master said, "He does not tread in the footsteps of others, but moreover, he does not enter the chamber of the sage."

 

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Chapter 20

  子曰:「論篤是與,君子者乎?色莊者乎?」

We may not hastily judge a man to be good from his discourse.
The Master said, "If, because a man's discourse appears solid and sincere, we allow him to be a good man, is he really a superior man? or is his gravity only in appearance?"

 

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Chapter 21

  子路問:「聞斯行諸?」

  子曰:「有父兄在,如之何其聞斯行之!」

  冉有問:「聞斯行諸?」

  子曰:「聞斯行之!」

  公西華曰:「由也問‘聞斯行諸’,子曰:‘有父兄在。’求也問‘聞斯行諸’,子曰:‘聞斯行之。’赤也惑,敢問。」

  子曰:「求也退,故進之。由也兼人,故退之。」

An instance in Tsze-lû and Zan Yû of how Confucius dealt with his disciples according to their characters.
Tsze-lû asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard. The Master said, "There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted;-- why should you act on that principle of immediately carrying into practice what you hear?" Zan Yû asked the same, whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and the Master answered, "Immediately carry into practice what you hear." Kung-hsî Hwâ said, "Yû asked whether he should carry immediately into practice what he heard, and you said, 'There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted.' Ch'iû asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and you said, 'Carry it immediately into practice.' I, Ch'ih, am perplexed, and venture to ask you for an explanation." The Master said, "Ch'iû is retiring and slow; therefore I urged him forward. Yû has more than his own share of energy; therefore I kept him back."

 

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Chapter 22

  子畏於匡,顏淵後。

  子曰:「吾以女爲死矣!」

  曰:「子在,回何敢死!」

Yen Yûan's attachment to Confucius, and confidence in his mission.
The Master was put in fear in K'wang and Yen Yûan fell behind. The Master, on his rejoining him, said, "I thought you had died." Hûi replied, "While you were alive, how should I presume to die?"

 

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Chapter 23

  季子然問:「仲由、冉求,可謂大臣與?」

  子曰:「吾以子爲異之問,曾由與求之問。所謂大臣者,以道事君,不可則止。今由與求也,可謂具臣矣。」

  曰:「然則從之者與?」

  子曰:「弒父與君,亦不從也。」

A great minister. Chung-yû and Zan Ch'iû only ordinary ministers.
1. Chî Tsze-zan asked whether Chung Yû and Zan Ch'iû could be called great ministers.

2. The Master said, "I thought you would ask about some extraordinary individuals, and you only ask about Yû and Ch'iû!

3. "What is called a great minister, is one who serves his prince according to what is right, and when he finds he cannot do so, retires.

4. "Now, as to Yû and Ch'iû, they may be called ordinary ministers."

5. Tsze-zan said, "Then they will always follow their chief;-- will they?"

6. The Master said, "In an act of parricide or regicide, they would not follow him."

 

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Chapter 24

  子路使子羔爲費宰。

  子曰:「賊夫人之子!」

  子路曰:「有民人焉,有社稷焉,何必讀書,然後爲學?」

  子曰:「是故惡夫佞者。」

How preliminary study is necessary to the exercise of government:-- a reproof of Tsze-lû.
1. Tsze-lû got Tsze-kâo appointed governor of Pî.

2. The Master said, "You are injuring a man's son."

3. Tsze-lû said, "There are (there) common people and officers; there are the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. Why must one read books before he can be considered to have learned?"

4. The Master said, "It is on this account that I hate your glib-tongued people."

 

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Chapter 25

  子路、曾皙、冉有、公西華侍坐。

  子曰:「以吾一日長乎爾,毋吾以也。居則曰:‘不吾知也!’如或知爾,則何以哉?」

  子路率爾而對曰:「千乘之國,攝乎大國之間,加之以師旅,因之以饑饉;由也爲之,比及三年,可使有勇,且知方也。」

  夫子哂之。

  「求,爾何如?」

  對曰:「方六七十,如五六十;求也爲之,比及三年,可使足民,如其禮樂,以俟君子。」

  「赤,爾何如?」

  對曰:「非曰能之,願學焉!宗廟之事,如會同,端章甫,願爲小相焉。」

  「點,爾何如?」

  鼓瑟希,鏗爾,舍瑟而作,對曰:「異乎三子者之撰。」

  子曰:「何傷乎?亦各言其志也。」

  曰:「莫春者,春服旣成;冠者五六人,童子六七人,浴乎沂,風乎舞雩,詠而歸。」

  夫子喟然歎曰:「吾與點也!」

  三子者出,曾皙後。

  曾皙曰:「夫三子者之言何如?」子曰:「亦各言其志也已矣。」

  曰:「夫子何哂由也?」

  曰:「爲國以禮。其言不讓,是故哂之。」

  「唯求則非邦也與?」

  「安見方六七十如五六十而非邦也者?」

  「唯赤則非邦也與?」

  「宗廟會同,非諸侯而何?赤也爲之小,孰能爲之大!」

The aims of Tsze-lû, Tsang Hsî, Zan Yû, and Kung-hsû Hwâ, and Confucius's remarks about them.
1. Tsze-lû, Tsang Hsî, Zan Yû, and Kung-hsû Hwâ were sitting by the Master.

2. He said to them, "Though I am a day or so older than you, do not think of that.

3. "From day to day you are saying, 'We are not known.' If some ruler were to know you, what would you like to do?"

4. Tsze-lû hastily and lightly replied, "Suppose the case of a state of ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large states; let it be suffering from invading armies; and to this let there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables:-- if I were intrusted with the government of it, in three years' time I could make the people to be bold, and to recognize the rules of righteous conduct." The Master smiled at him.

5. Turning to Yen Yû, he said, "Ch'iû, what are your wishes?" Ch'iû replied, "Suppose a state of sixty or seventy lî square, or one of fifty or sixty, and let me have the government of it;-- in three years' time, I could make plenty to abound among the people. As to teaching them the principles of propriety, and music, I must wait for the rise of a superior man to do that."

6. "What are your wishes, Ch'ih," said the Master next to Kung-hsî Hwâ. Ch'ih replied, "I do not say that my ability extends to these things, but I should wish to learn them. At the services of the ancestral temple, and at the audiences of the princes with the sovereign, I should like, dressed in the dark square-made robe and the black linen cap, to act as a small assistant."

7. Last of all, the Master asked Tsang Hsî, "Tien, what are your wishes?" Tien, pausing as he was playing on his lute, while it was yet twanging, laid the instrument aside, and "My wishes," he said, "are different from the cherished purposes of these three gentlemen." "What harm is there in that?" said the Master; "do you also, as well as they, speak out your wishes." Tien then said, "In this, the last month of spring, with the dress of the season all complete, along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys, I would wash in the Î, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and return home singing." The Master heaved a sigh and said, "I give my approval to Tien."

8. The three others having gone out, Tsang Hsî remained behind, and said, "What do you think of the words of these three friends?" The Master replied, "They simply told each one his wishes."

9. Hsî pursued, "Master, why did you smile at Yû?"

10. He was answered, "The management of a state demands the rules of propriety. His words were not humble; therefore I smiled at him."

11. Hsi again said, "But was it not a state which Ch'iû proposed for himself?" The reply was, "Yes; did you ever see a territory of sixty or seventy lî or one of fifty or sixty, which was not a state?"

12. Once more, Hsî inquired, "And was it not a state which Ch'ih proposed for himself?" The Master again replied, "Yes; who but princes have to do with ancestral temples, and with audiences but the sovereign? If Ch'ih were to be a small assistant in these services, who could be a great one?

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

顏淵第十二

Book XII: Yen Yûan

 

<a name="docA1201">

Chapter 1

  顏淵問仁。

  子曰:「克己復禮爲仁。一日克己復禮,天下歸仁焉。爲仁由己,而由人乎哉?」

  顏淵曰:「請問其目?」

  子曰:「非禮勿視,非禮勿聽,非禮勿言,非禮勿動。」

  顏淵曰:「回雖不敏,請事斯語矣!」

How to attain to perfect virtue:-- a conversation with Yen Yüan.
1. Yen Yüan asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to him. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or is it from others?"

2. Yen Yüan said, "I beg to ask the steps of that process." The Master replied, "Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which is contrary to propriety." Yen Yüan then said, "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."

 

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Chapter 2

  仲弓問仁。

  子曰:「出門如見大賓,使民如承大祭。己所不欲,勿施於人。在邦無怨,在家無怨。」

  仲弓曰:「雍雖不敏,請事斯語矣!」

Wherein perfect virtue is realized:-- a conversation with Chung-kung.
Chung-kung asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, when you go abroad, to behave to every one as if you were receiving a great guest; to employ the people as if you were assisting at a great sacrifice; not to do to others as you would not wish done to yourself; to have no murmuring against you in the country, and none in the family." Chung-kung said, "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."

 

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Chapter 3

  司馬牛問仁。

  子曰:「仁者其言也訒。」

  曰:「其言也訒,斯謂之仁已乎?」

  子曰:「爲之難,言之得無訒乎?」

Caution in speaking a characteristic of perfect virtue:-- a conversation with Tsze-niû.
1. Sze-mâ Niû asked about perfect virtue.

2. The Master said, "The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his speech."

3. "Cautious and slow in his speech!" said Niu;-- "is this what is meant by perfect virtue?" The Master said, "When a man feels the difficulty of doing, can he be other than cautious and slow in speaking?"

 

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Chapter 4

  司馬牛問君子。

  子曰:「君子不憂不懼。」

  曰:「不憂不懼,斯謂之君子已乎?」

  子曰:「內省不疚,夫何憂何懼?」

How the Chün-tsze has neither anxiety nor fear, and conscious rectitude frees from these.
1. Sze-mâ Niû asked about the superior man. The Master said, "The superior man has neither anxiety nor fear."

2. "Being without anxiety or fear!" said Niû;-- "does this constitute what we call the superior man?"

3. The Master said, "When internal examination discovers nothing wrong, what is there to be anxious about, what is there to fear?"

 

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Chapter 5

  司馬牛憂曰:「人皆有兄弟,我獨亡!」

  子夏曰:「商聞之矣:‘死生有命,富貴在天。’君子敬而無失,與人恭而有禮,四海之內,皆兄弟也。君子何患乎無兄弟也?」

Consolation offered by Tsze-hsiâ to Tsze-niû, anxious about the ways of his brother.
1. Sze-mâ Niû, full of anxiety, said, "Other men all have their brothers, I only have not."

2. Tsze-hsiâ said to him, "There is the following saying which I have heard --

3. "'Death and life have their determined appointment; riches and honors depend upon Heaven.'

4. "Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety:-- then all within the four seas will be his brothers. What has the superior man to do with being distressed because he has no brothers?"

 

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Chapter 6

  子張問明。

  子曰:「浸潤之譖,膚受之愬,不行焉,可謂明也已矣。浸潤之譖,膚受之愬,不行焉,可謂遠也已矣。」

What constitutes intelligence:-- addressed to Tzu-Chang.
Tzu-Chang asked what constituted intelligence. The Master said, "He with whom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor statements that startle like a wound in the flesh, are successful, may be called intelligent indeed. Yea, he with whom neither soaking slander, nor startling statements, are successful, may be called farseeing."

 

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Chapter 7

  子貢問政。

  子曰:「足食,足兵,民信之矣。」

  子貢曰:「必不得已而去,於斯三者何先?」

  曰:「去兵。」

  子貢曰:「必不得已而去,於斯二者何先?」

  曰:「去食。自古皆有死;民無信不立。」

Requisites in government:-- a conversation with Tsze-kung.
1. Tsze-kung asked about government. The Master said, "The requisites of government are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler."

2. Tsze-kung said, "If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensed with, which of the three should be foregone first?" "The military equipment," said the Master.

3. Tsze-kung again asked, "If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining two must be dispensed with, which of them should be foregone?" The Master answered, "Part with the food. From of old, death has been the lot of an men; but if the people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the state."

 

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Chapter 8

  棘子成曰:「君子質而已矣,何以文爲?」

  子貢曰:「惜乎,夫子之說君子也,駟不及舌!文猶質也,質猶文也;虎豹之鞟,猶犬羊之鞟。」

Substantial qualities and accomplishments in the Chün-tsze.
1. Chî Tsze-ch'ang said, "In a superior man it is only the substantial qualities which are wanted;-- why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments?"

2. Tsze-kung said, "Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue.

3. "Ornament is as substance; substance is as ornament. The hide of a tiger or a leopard stripped of its hair, is like the hide of a dog or a goat stripped of its hair."

 

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Chapter 9

  哀公問於有若曰:「年饑,用不足,如之何?」

  有若對曰:「盍徹乎!」

  曰:「二,吾猶不足,如之何其徹也?」

  對曰:「百姓足,君孰與不足?百姓不足,君孰與足?」

Light taxation the best way to secure the government from embrrassment for want of funds.
1. The duke Âi inquired of Yû Zo, saying, "The year is one of scarcity, and the returns for expenditure are not sufficient;-- what is to be done?"

2. Yû Zo replied to him, "Why not simply tithe the people?"

3. "With two tenths," said the duke, "I find it not enough;-- how could I do with that system of one tenth?"

4. Yû Zo answered, "If the people have plenty, their prince will not be left to want alone. If the people are in want, their prince cannot enjoy plenty alone."

 

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Chapter 10

  子張問崇德、辨惑。

  子曰:「主忠信,徙義,崇德也。愛之欲其生,惡之欲其死;旣欲其生又欲其死,是惑也!‘誠不以富,亦祇以異。’」

How to exalt virtue and discover delusions.
1. Tzu-Chang having asked how virtue was to be exalted, and delusions to be discovered, the Master said, "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles, and be moving continually to what is right, -- this is the way to exalt one's virtue.

2. "You love a man and wish him to live; you hate him and wish him to die. Having wished him to live, you also wish him to die. This is a case of delusion.

3. "'It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you come to make a difference.'"

 

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Chapter 11

  齊景公問政於孔子。

  孔子對曰:「君君,臣臣,父父,子子。」

  公曰:「善哉!信如君不君,臣不臣,父不父,子不子,雖有粟,吾得而食諸?」

Good government obtains only when all the relative duties are maintained.
1. The duke Ching, of Ch'î, asked Confucius about government.

2. Confucius replied, "There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son."

3. "Good!" said the duke; "if, indeed, the prince be not prince, the not minister, the father not father, and the son not son, although I have my revenue, can I enjoy it?"

 

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Chapter 12

  子曰:「片言可以折獄者,其由也與!」

  子路無宿諾。

With what ease Tsze-lû could settle litigations.
1. The Master said, "Ah! it is Yû, who could with half a word settle litigations!"

2. Tsze-lû never slept over a promise.

 

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Chapter 13

  子曰:「聽訟,吾猶人也。必也使無訟乎!」

To prevent better than to determine litigations.
The Master said, "In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is necessary, however, is to cause the people to have no litigations."

 

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Chapter 14

  子張問政。

  子曰:「居之無倦,行之以忠。」

The art of governing.
Tzu-Chang asked about government. The Master said, "The art of governing is to keep its affairs before the mind without weariness, and to practice them with undeviating consistency."

 

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Chapter 15

  子曰:「博學於文,約之以禮,亦可以弗畔矣夫。」

Hardly diferent from Book VI Chapter XXV.
The Master said, "By extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, one may thus likewise not err from what is right."

 

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Chapter 16

  子曰:「君子成人之美,不成人之惡。小人反是。」

Opposite influence upon others of the superior man and the mean man.
The Master said, "The superior man seeks to perfect the admirable qualities of men, and does not seek to perfect their bad qualities. The mean man does the opposite of this."

 

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Chapter 17

  季康子問政於孔子。

  孔子對曰:「政者,正也。子帥以正,孰敢不正?」

Government moral in its end, and efficient by example.
Chî K'ang asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied, "To govern means to rectify. If you lead on the people with correctness, who will dare not to be correct?"

 

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Chapter 18

  季康子患盜,問於孔子。

  孔子對曰:「苟子之不欲,雖賞之不竊。」

The people are made thieves by the example of their rulers.
Chî K'ang, distressed about the number of thieves in the state, inquired of Confucius how to do away with them. Confucius said, "If you, sir, were not covetous, although you should reward them to do it, they would not steal."

 

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Chapter 19

  季康子問政於孔子曰:「如殺無道,以就有道,何如?」

  孔子對曰:「子爲政,焉用殺?子欲善而民善矣。君子之德風,小人之德草。草上之風,必偃。」

Killing not to be talked of by rulers; the effect of their example.
Chî K'ang asked Confucius about government, saying, "What do you say to killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled?" Confucius replied, "Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use killing at all? Let your evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will be good. The relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows across it."

 

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Chapter 20

  子張問:「士何如斯可謂之達矣?」

  子曰:「何哉,爾所謂達者?」

  子張對曰:「在邦必聞,在家必聞。」

  子曰:「是聞也,非達也。夫達也者,質直而好義,察言而觀色,慮以下人,在邦必達,在家必達。夫聞也者,色取仁而行違,居之不疑,在邦必聞,在家必聞。」

The man of true distinction, and the man of true notoriety.
1. Tzu-Chang asked, "What must the officer be, who may be said to be distinguished?"

2. The Master said, "What is it you call being distinguished?"

3. Tzu-Chang replied, "It is to be heard of through the state, to be heard of throughout his clan."

4. The Master said, "That is notoriety, not distinction.

5. "Now the man of distinction is solid and straightforward, and loves righteousness. He examines people's words, and looks at their countenances. He is anxious to humble himself to others. Such a man will be distinguished in the country; he will be distinguished in his clan.

6. "As to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance of virtue, but his actions are opposed to it, and he rests in this character without any doubts about himself. Such a man will be heard of in the country; he will be heard of in the clan."

 

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Chapter 21

  樊遲從遊於舞雩之下,曰:「敢問崇德、脩慝、辨惑。」

  子曰:「善哉問!先事後得,非崇德與?攻其惡,無攻人之惡,非脩慝與?一朝之忿,忘其身,以及其親,非惑與?」

How to exalt virtue, correct vice, and discover delusions.
1. Fan Ch'ih rambling with the Master under the trees about the rain altars, said, "I venture to ask how to exalt virtue, to correct cherished evil, and to discover delusions."

2. The Master said, "Truly a good question!

3. "If doing what is to be done be made the first business, and success a secondary consideration:-- is not this the way to exalt virtue? To assail one's own wickedness and not assail that of others;-- is not this the way to correct cherished evil? For a morning's anger to disregard one's own life, and involve that of his parents;-- is not this a case of delusion?"

 

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Chapter 22

  樊遲問「仁」。

  子曰:「愛人。」

  問「知」。

  曰:「知人。」

  樊遲未達。

  子曰:「舉直錯諸枉,能使枉者直。」

  樊遲退,見子夏,曰:「鄉也,吾見於夫子而問‘知’,子曰:‘舉直錯諸枉,能使枉者直。’何謂也?」

  子夏曰:「富哉言乎!舜有天下,選於眾,舉皋陶,不仁者遠矣。湯有天下,選於眾,舉伊尹,不仁者遠矣。」

About benevolence and wisdom;-- how knowledge subserves benevolence.
1. Fan Ch'ih asked about benevolence. The Master said, "It is to love all men." He asked about knowledge. The Master said, "It is to know all men."

2. Fan Ch'ih did not immediately understand these answers.

3. The Master said, "Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked; in this way the crooked can be made to be upright."

4. Fan Ch'ih retired, and, seeing Tsze-hsiâ, he said to him, "A Little while ago, I had an interview with our Master, and asked him about knowledge. He said, 'Employ the upright, and put aside all the crooked;-- in this way, the crooked will be made to be upright.' What did he mean?"

5. Tsze-hsiâ said, "Truly rich is his saying!

6. "Shun, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the people, and employed Kâo-yâo, on which all who were devoid of virtue disappeared. T'ang, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the people, and employed Î Yin, and an who were devoid of virtue disappeared."

 

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Chapter 23

  子貢問友。

  子曰:「忠告而善道之,不可則止,毋自辱焉。」

Prudence in friendship.
Tsze-kung asked about friendship. The Master said, "Faithfully admonish your friend, and skillfully lead him on. If you find him impracticable, stop. Do not disgrace yourself."

 

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Chapter 24

  曾子曰:「君子以文會友;以友輔仁。」

The friendship of the Chün-tsze.
The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man on grounds of culture meets with his friends, and by friendship helps his virtue."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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1301, 1302, 1303, 1304, 1305, 1306, 1307, 1308, 1309, 1310, 1311, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1315, 1316, 1317, 1318, 1319, 1320, 1321, 1322, 1323, 1324, 1325, 1326, 1327, 1328, 1329, 1330

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

子路第十三

Book XIII: Tsze-Lû

 

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Chapter I.

子路問「政」。

子曰:「先之,勞之。」

請益。曰:「無倦。」

The secret of success in governing is the unwearied example of the rulers:-- a lesson to Tsze-lû.
1. Tsze-lû asked about government. The Master said, "Go before the people with your example, and be laborious in their affairs."

2. He requested further instruction, and was answered, "Be not weary (in these things)."

 

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Chapter II.

仲弓為季氏宰,問「政」。

子曰:「先有司,赦小過,舉賢才。」

曰:「焉知賢才而舉之?」

曰:「舉爾所知;爾所不知,人其舍諸!」

The duties chiefly to be attended to by a head minister:-- a lesson to Zan Yung.
1. Chung-kung, being chief minister to the head of the Chi family, asked about government. The Master said, "Employ first the services of your various officers, pardon small faults, and raise to office men of virtue and talents."

2. Chung-kung said, "How shall I know the men of virtue and talent, so that I may raise them to office?" He was answered, "Raise to office those whom you know. As to those whom you do not know, will others neglect them?"

 

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Chapter III.

子路曰:「衛君待子而為政,子將奚先?」

子曰:「必也正名乎!」

子路曰:「有是哉?子之迂也!奚其正?」

子曰:「野哉,由也!君子於其所不知,蓋闕如也。名不正,則言不順;言不順,則事不成;事不成,則禮樂不興;禮樂不興,則刑罰不中;刑罰不中,則民無所措手足。故君子名之必可言也,言之必可行也。君子於其言,無所茍而已矣!」

The supreme importance of names being correct.
1. Tsze-lû said, "The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with you to administer the government. What will you consider the first thing to be done?"

2. The Master replied, "What is necessary is to rectify names."

3. "So! indeed!" said Tsze-lû. "You are wide of the mark! Why must there be such rectification?"

4. The Master said, "How uncultivated you are, Yû! A superior man, in regard to what he does not know, shows a cautious reserve.

5. "If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success.

6. "When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music will not flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot.

7. "Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses may be spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may be carried out appropriately. What the superior man requires is just that in his words there may be nothing incorrect."

 

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Chapter IV.

樊遲請學稼,子曰:「吾不如老農。」

請學為圃,曰:「吾不如老圃。」

樊遲出,子曰:「小人哉,樊須也!上好禮,則民莫敢不敬;上好義,則民莫敢不服;上好信,則民莫敢不用情。夫如是,則四方之民,襁負其子而至矣;焉用稼!」

A ruler has not to occupy himself with what is properly the business of the people.
1. Fan Ch'ih requested to be taught husbandry. The Master said, "I am not so good for that as an old husbandman." He requested also to be taught gardening, and was answered, "I am not so good for that as an old gardener."

2. Fan Ch'ih having gone out, the Master said, "A small man, indeed, is Fan Hsü!

3. "If a superior man love propriety, the people will not dare not to be reverent. If he love righteousness, the people will not dare not to submit to his example. If he love good faith, the people will not dare not to be sincere. Now, when these things obtain, the people from all quarters will come to him, bearing their children on their backs;-- what need has he of a knowledge of husbandry?"

 

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Chapter V.

子曰:「誦詩三百;授之以政,不達;使於四方,不能專對;雖多,亦奚以為!」

Literary acquirements useless without practical ability.
The Master said, "Though a man may be able to recite the three hundred odes, yet if, when intrusted with a governmental charge, he knows not how to act, or if, when sent to any quarter on a mission, he cannot give his replies unassisted, notwithstanding the extent of his learning, of what practical use is it?"

 

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Chapter VI.

子曰:「其身正,不令而行;其身不正,雖令不從。」

His personal conduct all in all to a ruler.
The Master said, "When a prince's personal conduct is correct, his government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed."

 

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Chapter VII.

子曰:「魯、衛之政,兄弟也。」

The similar condition of the States of Lû and Wei.
The Master said, "The governments of Lû and Wei are brothers."

 

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Chapter VIII.

子謂衛公子荊善居屋。始有,曰:「苟合矣。」少有,曰:「苟完矣。」富有,曰:「苟美矣。」

The contentment of the officer Ching, and his indifference on getting rich.
The Master said of Ching, a scion of the ducal family of Wei, that he knew the economy of a family well. When he began to have means, he said, "Ha! here is a collection!" When they were a little increased, he said, "Ha! this is complete!" When he had become rich, he said, "Ha! this is admirable!"

 

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Chapter IX.

子適衛,冉有僕。

子曰:「庶矣哉!」

冉有曰:「既庶矣,又何加焉?」

曰:「富之。」

曰:「既富矣,又何加焉?」

曰:「教之。」

A people numerous, well-off, and educated, is the great achievement of government.
1. When the Master went to Wei, Zan Yû acted as driver of his carriage.

2. The Master observed, "How numerous are the people!"

3. Yû said, "Since they are thus numerous, what more shall be done for them?" "Enrich them," was the reply.

4. "And when they have been enriched, what more shall be done?" The Master said, "Teach them."

 

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Chapter X.

子曰:「苟有用我者,朞月而已可也,三年有成。」

Confucius's estimate of what he could do, if employed to administer the government of a State.
The Master said, "If there were (any of the princes) who would employ me, in the course of twelve months, I should have done something considerable. In three years, the government would be perfected."

 

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Chapter XI.

子曰:「『善人為邦百年,亦可以勝殘去殺矣。』誠哉是言也!」

What a hundred years of good government could effect.
The Master said, "'If good men were to govern a country in succession for a hundred years, they would be able to transform the violently bad, and dispense with capital punishments.' True indeed is this saying!"

 

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Chapter XII.

子曰:「如有王者,必世而後仁。」

In what time a royal ruler could transform the kingdom.
The Master said, "If a truly royal ruler were to arise, it would still require a generation, and then virtue would prevail."

 

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Chapter XIII.

子曰:「苟正其身矣,於從政乎何有?不能正其身,如正人何?」

That he be personally correct essential to an officer of government.
The Master said, "If a minister make his own conduct correct, what difficulty will he have in assisting in government? If he cannot rectify himself, what has he to do with rectifying others?"

 

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Chapter XIV.

冉子退朝,

子曰:「何晏也?」

對曰:「有政。」

子曰:「其事也!如有政,雖不吾以,吾其與聞之!」

An ironical admonition to Zan Yû on the usurping tendencies of the Chî family.
The disciple Zan returning from the court, the Master said to him, "How are you so late?" He replied, "We had government business." The Master said, "It must have been family affairs. If there had been government business, though I am not now in office, I should have been consulted about it."

 

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Chapter XV.

定公問:「一言而可以興邦,有諸?」

孔子對曰:「言不可以若是其幾也!人之言曰:『為君難,為臣不易。』如知為君之難也,不幾乎一言而興邦乎?」

曰:「一言而喪邦,有諸?」

孔子對曰:「言不可以若是其幾也!人之言曰:『予無樂乎為君,唯其言而莫予違也。』如其善而莫之違也,不亦善乎?如不善而莫之違也,不幾乎一言而喪邦乎?」

How the prosperity and ruin of a country may depend on the ruler's view of his position, his feeling its difficulty, or only cherishing a headstrong will.
1. The Duke Ting asked whether there was a single sentence which could make a country prosperous. Confucius replied, "Such an effect cannot be expected from one sentence.

2. "There is a saying, however, which people have -- 'To be a prince is difficult; to be a minister is not easy.'

3. "If a ruler knows this, -- the difficulty of being a prince, -- may there not be expected from this one sentence the prosperity of his country?"

4. The duke then said, "Is there a single sentence which can ruin a country?" Confucius replied, "Such an effect as that cannot be expected from one sentence. There is, however, the saying which people have -- 'I have no pleasure in being a prince, but only in that no one can offer any opposition to what I say!'

5. "If a ruler's words be good, is it not also good that no one oppose them? But if they are not good, and no one opposes them, may there not be expected from this one sentence the ruin of his country?"

 

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Chapter XVI.

葉公問政。子曰:「近者說,遠者來。」

Good government seen from its effects.
1. The duke of Sheh asked about government.

2. The Master said, "Good government obtains, when those who are near are made happy, and those who are far off are attracted."

 

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Chapter XVII.

子夏為莒父宰,問政。

子曰:「無欲速;無見小利。欲速則不達;見小利則大事不成。」

Haste and small advantages not to be desired in governing.
Tsze-hsiâ, being governor of Chü-fû, asked about government. The Master said, "Do not be desirous to have things done quickly; do not look at small advantages. Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly. Looking at small advantages prevents great affairs from being accomplished."

 

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Chapter XVIII.

葉公語孔子曰:「吾黨有直躬者:其父攘羊而子證之。」

孔子曰:「吾黨之直者異於是:父為子隱,子為父隱,直在其中矣。」

Natural duty and uprightness in collision.
1. The Duke of Sheh informed Confucius, saying, "Among us here there are those who may be styled upright in their conduct. If their father have stolen a sheep, they will bear witness to the fact."

2. Confucius said, "Among us, in our part of the country, those who are upright are different from this. The father conceals the misconduct of the son, and the son conceals the misconduct of the father. Uprightness is to be found in this."

 

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Chapter XIX.

樊遲問仁。子曰:「居處恭,執事敬,與人忠;雖之夷狄,不可棄也。」

Characteristics of perfect virtue.
Fan Ch'ih asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, in retirement, to be sedately grave; in the management of business, to be reverently attentive; in intercourse with others, to be strictly sincere. Though a man go among rude, uncultivated tribes, these qualities may not be neglected."

 

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Chapter XX.

子貢問曰:「何如斯可謂之士矣?」

子曰:「行己有恥;使於四方,不辱君命;可謂士矣。」

曰:「敢問其次?」

曰:「宗族稱孝焉,鄉黨稱弟焉。」

曰:「敢問其次?」

曰:「言必信,行必果;硜硜然,小人哉!抑亦可以為次矣。」

曰:「今之從政者何如?」

子曰:「噫!斗筲之人,何足算也!」

Different classes of men who in their several degrees may be styled officers, and the inferiority of the mass of the officers of Confucius's time.
1. Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to be called an officer? The Master said, "He who in his conduct of himself maintains a sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not disgrace his prince's commission, deserves to be called an officer."

2. Tsze-kung pursued, "I venture to ask who may be placed in the next lower rank?" And he was told, "He whom the circle of his relatives pronounce to be filial, whom his fellow villagers and neighbors pronounce to be fraternal."

3. Again the disciple asked, "I venture to ask about the class still next in order." The Master said, "They are determined to be sincere in what they say, and to carry out what they do. They are obstinate little men. Yet perhaps they may make the next class."

4. Tsze-kung finally inquired, "Of what sort are those of the present day, who engage in government?" The Master said "Pooh! they are so many pecks and hampers, not worth being taken into account."

 

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Chapter XXI.

子曰:「不得中行而與之,必也狂狷乎?狂者進取,狷者有所不為也。」

Confucius obliged to content himself with the ardent and cautious as disciples.
The Master said, "Since I cannot get men pursuing the due medium, to whom I might communicate my instructions, I must find the ardent and the cautiously-decided. The ardent will advance and lay hold of truth; the cautiously-decided will keep themselves from what is wrong."

 

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Chapter XXII.

子曰:「南人有言曰:『人而無恆,不可以作巫醫。』善夫!」「不恆其德,或承之羞。」

子曰:「不占而已矣。」

The importance of fixity and constancy of mind.
1. The Master said, "The people of the south have a saying -- 'A man without constancy cannot be either a wizard or a doctor.' Good!

2. "Inconstant in his virtue, he will be visited with disgrace."

3. The Master said, "This arises simply from not attending to the prognostication."

 

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Chapter XXIII.

子曰:「君子和而不同;小人同而不和。」

The different manners of the superior and the mean man.
The Master said, "The superior man is affable, but not adulatory; the mean man is adulatory, but not affable."

 

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Chapter XXIV.

子貢問曰:「鄉人皆好之,何如?」

子曰:「未可也。」

「鄉人皆惡之,何如?」

子曰:「未可也。不如鄉人之善者好之,其不善者惡之。」

How, to judge of a man from the likings and dislikings of others, we must know the characteristics of those others.
Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What do you say of a man who is loved by all the people of his neighborhood?" The Master replied, "We may not for that accord our approval of him." "And what do you say of him who is hated by all the people of his neighborhood?" The Master said, "We may not for that conclude that he is bad. It is better than either of these cases that the good in the neighborhood love him, and the bad hate him."

 

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Chapter XXV.

子曰:「君子易事而難說也:說之不以道,不說也;及其使人也,器之。小人難事而易說也;說之雖不以道,說也;及其使人也,求備焉。」

Difference between the superior and the mean man in their relation to those employed by them.
The Master said, "The superior man is easy to serve and difficult to please. If you try to please him in any way which is not accordant with right, he will not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he uses them according to their capacity. The mean man is difficult to serve, and easy to please. If you try to please him, though it be in a way which is not accordant with right, he may be pleased. But in his employment of men, he wishes them to be equal to everything."

 

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Chapter XXVI.

子曰:「君子泰而不驕;小人驕而不泰。」

The different air and bearing of the superior and the mean man.
The Master said, "The superior man has a dignified ease without pride. The mean man has pride without a dignified ease."

 

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Chapter XXVII.

子曰:「剛毅木訥,近仁。」

Natural qualities which are favorable to virtue.
The Master said, "The firm, the enduring, the simple, and the modest are near to virtue."

 

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Chapter XXVIII.

子路問曰:「何如斯可謂之士矣?」

子曰:「切切、偲偲、怡怡如也,可謂士矣。朋友切切偲偲,兄弟怡怡。」

Qualities that mark the scholar in social intercourse.
Tsze-lû asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to be called a scholar?" The Master said, "He must be thus, -- earnest, urgent, and bland:-- among his friends, earnest and urgent; among his brethren, bland."

 

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Chapter XXIX.

子曰:「善人教民七年,亦可以即戎矣。」

How the government of a good ruler will prepare the people for war.
The Master said, "Let a good man teach the people seven years, and they may then likewise be employed in war."

 

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Chapter XXX.

子曰:「以不教民戰,是謂棄之。」

That people must be taught, to prepare them for war.
The Master said, "To lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw them away."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

憲問第十四

Book XIV: Hsien Wen

 

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Chapter 1

  憲問「恥」。

  子曰:「邦有道,穀;邦無道,穀:恥也。」

It is shameful in an officer to be caring only about his emolument.
Hsien asked what was shameful. The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, to be thinking only of salary; and, when bad government prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of salary;-- this is shameful."

 

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Chapter 2

  「克、伐、怨、欲不行焉,可以爲仁矣?」

  子曰:「可以爲難矣,仁則吾不知也。」

The praise of perfect virtue is not to be allowed for the repression of bad feelings.
1. "When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness are repressed, this may be deemed perfect virtue."

2. The Master said, "This may be regarded as the achievement of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."

 

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Chapter 3

  子曰:「士而懷居,不足以爲士矣!」

A scholar must be aiming at what is higher than comfort or pleasure.
The Master said, "The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is not fit to be deemed a scholar."

 

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Chapter 4

  子曰:「邦有道,危言危行。邦無道,危行言孫。」

What one does must always be right; what one feels need not always be spoken:-- a lesson of prudence.
The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, language may be lofty and bold, and actions the same. When bad government prevails, the actions may be lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve."

 

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Chapter 5

  子曰:「有德者必有言,有言者不必有德。仁者必有勇,勇者不必有仁。」

We may predicate the external from the internal, but not vice versa.
The Master said, "The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly, but those whose speech is good may not always be virtuous. Men of principle are sure to be bold, but those who are bold may not always be men of principle."

 

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Chapter 6

  南宮适問於孔子曰:「羿善射,奡盪舟,俱不得其死然。禹、稷躬稼而有天下。」

  夫子不答。

  南宮适出。

  子曰:「君子哉若人!尚德哉若人!」

Eminent prowess conducting to ruin; eminent virtue leading to dignity. The modesty of Confucius.
Nan-kung Kwo, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said, "Î was skillful at archery, and Âo could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them died a natural death. Yü and Chî personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, and they became possessors of the kingdom." The Master made no reply; but when Nan-kung Kwo went out, he said, "A superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this!"

 

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Chapter 7

  子曰:「君子而不仁者有矣夫,未有小人而仁者也。」

The highest virtue not easily attained to, and incompatible with meanness.
The Master said, "Superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there have been, alas! But there never has been a mean man, and, at the same time, virtuous."

 

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Chapter 8

  子曰:「愛之,能勿勞乎?忠焉,能勿誨乎?」

A lesson for parents and ministers, that they must be strict and decided.
The Master said, "Can there be love which does not lead to strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of its object?"

 

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Chapter 9

  子曰:「爲命:裨諶草創之,世叔討論之,行人子羽脩飾之,東里子產潤色之。」

The excellence of the official notifications of Chang, owing to the ability of four of its officers.
The Master said, "In preparing the governmental notifications, P'î Shan first made the rough draft; Shî-shû examined and discussed its contents; Tsze-yü, the manager of foreign intercourse, then polished the style; and, finally, Tsze-ch'ân of Tung-lî gave it the proper elegance and finish."

 

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Chapter 10

  或問子產。

  子曰:「惠人也。」

  問子西。

  曰:「彼哉彼哉!」

  問管仲。

  曰:「人也,奪伯氏駢邑三百,飯疏食,沒齒無怨言。」

The judgement of Confucius concerning Tsze-ch'ân, tsze-hsî, and Kwan Chung.
1. Some one asked about Tsze-ch'ân. The Master said, "He was a kind man."

2. He asked about Tsze-hsî. The Master said, "That man! That man!"

3. He asked about Kwan Chung. "For him," said the Master, "the city of Pien, with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Po family, who did not utter a murmuring word, though, to the end of his life, he had only coarse rice to eat."

 

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Chapter 11

  子曰:「貧而無怨難,富而無驕易。」

It is harder to bear poverty aright than to carry riches.
The Master said, "To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be rich without being proud is easy."

 

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Chapter 12

  子曰:「孟公綽爲趙魏老則優,不可以爲滕、薛大夫。」

The capacity of Mang Kung-ch'o.
The Master said, "Mang Kung-ch'o is more than fit to be chief officer in the families of Châo and Wei, but he is not fit to be great officer to either of the States Tang or Hsieh."

 

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Chapter 13

  子路問成人。

  子曰:「若臧武仲之知,公綽之不欲,卞莊子之勇,冉求之藝,文之以禮樂,亦可以爲成人矣!」

  曰:「今之成人者何必然?見利思義,見危授命,久要不忘平生之言,亦可以爲成人矣。」

Of the complete man:-- a conversation with Tsze-lû.
1. Tsze-lû asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. The Master said, "Suppose a man with the knowledge of Tsang Wû-chung, the freedom from covetousness of Kung-ch'o, the bravery of Chwang of Pien, and the varied talents of Zan Ch'iû; add to these the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music;-- such a one might be reckoned a COMPLETE man."

2. He then added, "But what is the necessity for a complete man of the present day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of gain, thinks of righteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life; and who does not forget an old agreement however far back it extends:-- such a man may be reckoned a COMPLETE man."

 

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Chapter 14

  子問公叔文子於公明賈,曰:「信乎,夫子不言、不笑、不取乎?」

  公明賈對曰:「以告者過也。夫子時然後言,人不厭其言;樂然後笑,人不厭其笑;義然後取,人不厭其取。」

  子曰:「其然?豈其然乎?」

The character of Kung-shû Wan, who was said neither to speak, nor laugh, nor take.
1. The Master asked Kung-ming Chiâ about Kung-shû Wan, saying, "Is it true that your master speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?"

2. Kung-ming Chiâ replied, "This has arisen from the reporters going beyond the truth. -- My master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not get tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking." The Master said, "So! But is it so with him?"

 

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Chapter 15

  子曰:「臧武仲以防求爲後於魯,雖曰不要君,吾不信也。」

Condemnation of Tsang Wû-chung for forcing a favour from his prince.
The Master said, "Tsang Wû-chung, keeping possession of Fang, asked of the duke of Lû to appoint a successor to him in his family. Although it may be said that he was not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was."

 

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Chapter 16

  子曰:「晉文公譎而不正,齊桓公正而不譎。」

The different characters of the dukes Wan of Tsin and Hwan of Ch'î.
The Master said, "The duke Wan of Tsin was crafty and not upright. The duke Hwan of Ch'î was upright and not crafty."

 

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Chapter 17

  子路曰:「桓公殺公子糾,召忽死之,管仲不死。」

  曰:「未仁乎?」

  子曰:「桓公九合諸侯,不以兵車,管仲之力也。如其仁!如其仁!」

The merit of Kwan Chung:-- a conversation with Tsze-lû.
1. Tsze-lû said, "The duke Hwan caused his brother Chiû to be killed, when Shâo Hû died with his master, but Kwan Chung did not die. May not I say that he was wanting in virtue?"

2. The Master said, "The Duke Hwan assembled all the princes together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots:-- it was all through the influence of Kwan Chung. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like his?"

 

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Chapter 18

  子貢曰:「管仲非仁者與?桓公殺公子糾,不能死,又相之。」

  子曰:「管仲相桓公,霸諸侯,一匡天下,民到于今受其賜。微管仲,吾其被髮左衽矣。豈若匹夫匹婦之爲諒也,自經於溝瀆而莫之知也!」

The merit of Kwan Chung:-- a conversation with Tsze-kung.
1. Tsze-kung said, "Kwan Chung, I apprehend, was wanting in virtue. When the Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiû to be killed, Kwan Chung was not able to die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Hwan."

2. The Master said, "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the duke Hwan, made him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole kingdom. Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Kwan Chung, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side.

3. "Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing anything about them?"

 

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Chapter 19

  公叔文子之臣大夫僎與文子同升諸公。

  子聞之曰:「可以爲文矣。」

The merit of Kung-shû Wan in recommending to high office, while in an inferior position, a man of worth.
1. The great officer, Hsien, who had been family minister to Kung-shû Wan, ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan.

2. The Master, having heard of it, said, "He deserved to be considered WAN (the accomplished)."

 

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Chapter 20

  子言衞靈公之無道也,康子曰:「夫如是,奚而不喪?」

  孔子曰:「仲叔圉治賓客,祝鮀治宗廟,王孫賈治軍旅。夫如是,奚其喪?」

The importance of good and able ministers:-- seen in the State of Wei.
1. The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke Ling of Wei, when Ch'î K'ang said, "Since he is of such a character, how is it he does not lose his state?"

2. Confucius said, "The Chung-shû Yü has the superintendence of his guests and of strangers; the litanist, T'o, has the management of his ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Chiâ has the direction of the army and forces:-- with such officers as these, how should he lose his state?"

 

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Chapter 21

  子曰:「其言之不怍,則爲之也難。」

Extravagant speech hard to be made good.
The Master said, "He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to make his words good."

 

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Chapter 22

  陳成子弒簡公。

  孔子沐浴而朝,告於哀公曰:「陳恆弒其君,請討之。」

  公曰:「告夫三子。」

  孔子曰:「以吾從大夫之後,不敢不告也。君曰‘告夫三子’者!」

  之三子告,不可。

  孔子曰:「以吾從大夫之後,不敢不告也。」

How Confucius wished to avenge the murder of the duke of Ch'î:-- his righteous and public spirit.
1. Chan Ch'ang murdered the duke Chien of Ch'î.

2. Confucius bathed, went to court and informed the duke Âi, saying, "Chan Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to punish him."

3. The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."

4. Confucius retired, and said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince says, 'Inform the chiefs of the three families of it.'"

5. He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act. Confucius then said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter."

 

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Chapter 23

  子路問事君。

  子曰:「勿欺也,而犯之。」

How the minister of a prince must be sincere and boldly upright.
Tsze-lû asked how a ruler should be served. The Master said, "Do not impose on him, and, moreover, withstand him to his face."

 

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Chapter 24

  子曰:「君子上達,小人下達。」

The different progressive tendencies of the supeior man and the mean man.
The Master said, "The progress of the superior man is upwards; the progress of the mean man is downwards."

 

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Chapter 25

  子曰:「古之學者爲己,今之學者爲人。」

The different motives of learners in old times, and in the times of Confucius.
The Master said, "In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own improvement. Nowadays, men learn with a view to the approbation of others."

 

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Chapter 26

  蘧伯玉使人於孔子。

  孔子與之坐,而問焉,曰:「夫子何爲?」

  對曰:「夫子欲寡其過而未能也。」

  使者出。

  子曰:「使乎!使乎!」

An admirable messenger.
1. Chü Po-yü sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to Confucius.

2. Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What," said he! "is your master engaged in?" The messenger replied, "My master is anxious to make his faults few, but he has not yet succeeded." He then went out, and the Master said, "A messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!"

 

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Chapter 27

  子曰:「不在其位,不謀其政。」

See Book VIII Chapter XIV.
The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties."

 

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Chapter 28

  曾子曰:「君子思不出其位。」

The thoughts of a superior man in harmony with his position.
The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man, in his thoughts, does not go out of his place."

 

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Chapter 29

  子曰:「君子恥其言而過其行。」

The superior man more in deeds than in words.
The Master said, "The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions."

 

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Chapter 30

  子曰:「君子道者三,我無能焉:仁者不憂,知者不惑,勇者不懼。」

  子貢曰:「夫子自道也。」

Confucius's humble estimate of himself, which Tsze-kung denies.
1. The Master said, "The way of the superior man is threefold, but I am not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear.

2. Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."

 

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Chapter 31

  子貢方人。

  子曰:「賜也賢乎哉?夫我則不暇!」

One's work is with one's self:-- against making comparisons.
Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. The Master said, "Tsze must have reached a high pitch of excellence! Now, I have not leisure for this."

 

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Chapter 32

  子曰:「不患人之不己知,患其不能也。」

Concern should be about our personal attainment, and not about the estimation of others.
The Master said, "I will not be concerned at men's not knowing me; I will be concerned at my own want of ability."

 

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Chapter 33

  子曰:「不逆詐,不億不信,抑亦先覺者,是賢乎?」

Quick discrimination without suspiciousness is highly meritorious.
The Master said, "He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things readily (when they occur);-- is he not a man of superior worth?"

 

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Chapter 34

  微生畝謂孔子曰:「丘何爲是栖栖者與?無乃爲佞乎?」

  孔子曰:「非敢爲佞也,疾固也。」

Confucius not self-willed, and yet no glib-tongued talker:-- defence of himself from the charge of an aged reprover.
1. Wei-shang Mâu said to Confucius, "Ch'iû, how is it that you keep roosting about? Is it not that you are an insinuating talker?

2. Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker, but I hate obstinacy."

 

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Chapter 35

  子曰:「驥不稱其力,稱其德也。」

Virtue, and not strength, the fit subject of praise.
The Master said, "A horse is called a ch'î, not because of its strength, but because of its other good qualities."

 

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Chapter36

  或曰:「以德報怨,何如?」

  子曰:「何以報德?以直報怨,以德報德。」

Good is not to be returned for evil; evil to be met simply with justice.
1. Some one said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?"

2. The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness?"

3. "Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."

 

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Chapter 37

  子曰:「莫我知也夫!」

  子貢曰:「何爲其莫知子也?」

  子曰:「不怨天,不尤人,下學而上達。知我者其天乎!」

Confucius, lamenting that men did not know him, rests in the thought that Heaven knew him.
1. The Master said, "Alas! there is no one that knows me."

2. Tsze-kung said, "What do you mean by thus saying -- that no one knows you?" The Master replied, "I do not murmur against Heaven. I do not grumble against men. My studies lie low, and my penetration rises high. But there is Heaven;-- that knows me!"

 

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Chapter 38

  公伯寮愬子路於季孫。

  子服景伯以告,曰:「夫子固有惑志於公伯寮,吾力猶能肆諸市朝。」

  子曰:「道之將行也與,命也。道之將廢也與,命也。公伯寮其如命何!」

How Confucius rested, as to the progress of his doctrines, on the ordering of Heaven:-- on occassion of Tsze-lû's being slandered.
1. The Kung-po Liâo, having slandered Tsze-lû to Chî-sun, Tsze-fû Ching-po informed Confucius of it, saying, "Our master is certainly being led astray by the Kung-po Liâo, but I have still power enough left to cut Liâo off, and expose his corpse in the market and in the court."

2. The Master said, "If my principles are to advance, it is so ordered. If they are to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. What can the Kung-po Liâo do where such ordering is concerned?"

 

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Chapter 39

  子曰:「賢者辟世,其次辟地,其次辟色,其次辟言。」

Different causes of why men of worth withdraw from public life, and different extents to which they so withdraw themselves.
1. The Master said, "Some men of worth retire from the world.

2. "Some retire from particular states.

3. "Some retire because of disrespectful looks.

4. "Some retire because of contradictory language."

 

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Chapter 40

  子曰:「作者七人矣!」

The number of men of worth who has withdrawn from public life in Confucius's time.
The Master said, "Those who have done this are seven men."

 

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Chapter 41

  子路宿於石門。

  晨門曰:「奚自?」

  子路曰:「自孔氏。」

  曰:「是知其不可而爲之者與?」

Condemnation of Confucius's course in seeking to be employed, by one who had withdrawn from public life.
Tsze-lû happening to pass the night in Shih-man, the gatekeeper said to him, "Whom do you come from?" Tsze-lû said, "From Mr. K'ung." "It is he, -- is it not?" -- said the other, "who knows the impracticable nature of the times and yet will be doing in them."

 

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Chapter 42

  子擊磬於衞。

  有荷蕢而過孔氏之門者,曰:「有心哉,擊磬乎!」

  旣而曰:「鄙哉,硜硜乎!莫己知也,斯己而已矣。‘深則厲,淺則揭。’」

  子曰:「果哉!末之難矣。」

The judgement of a retired worthy on Confucius's course, and remark of Confucius thereon.
1. The Master was playing, one day, on a musical stone in Wei, when a man, carrying a straw basket, passed door of the house where Confucius was, and said, "His heart is full who so beats the musical stone."

2. A little while after, he added, "How contemptible is the one-ideaed obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no notice of, he has simply at once to give over his wish for public employment. 'Deep water must be crossed with the clothes on; shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held up.'"

3. The Master said, "How determined is he in his purpose! But this is not difficult!"

 

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Chapter 43

  子張曰:「《書》云:‘高宗諒陰,三年不言。’何謂也?」

  子曰:「何必高宗?古之人皆然。君薨,百官總己以聽於冢宰三年。」

How government was caried on during the three years of silent mourning by the sovereign.
1. Tzu-Chang said, "What is meant when the Shû says that Kâo-tsung, while observing the usual imperial mourning, was for three years without speaking?"

2. The Master said, "Why must Kâo-tsung be referred to as an example of this? The ancients all did so. When the sovereign died, the officers all attended to their several duties, taking instructions from the prime minister for three years."

 

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Chapter 44

  子曰:「上好禮,則民易使也。」

How a love of the rules of propriety in rulers facilitates government.
The Master said, "When rulers love to observe the rules of propriety, the people respond readily to the calls on them for service."

 

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Chapter 45

  子路問「君子」。

  子曰:「脩己以敬。」

  曰:「如斯而已乎?」

  曰:「脩己以安人。」

  曰:「如斯而已乎?」

  曰:「脩己以安百姓。脩己以安百姓,堯、舜其猶病諸!」

Reverent self-cultivation the distinguishing characteristic of the Chün-tsze.
Tsze-lû asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "The cultivation of himself in reverential carefulness." "And is this all?" said Tsze-lû. "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others," was the reply. "And is this all?" again asked Tsze-lû. The Master said, "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people. He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people:-- even Yâo and Shun were still solicitous about this."

 

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Chapter 46

  原壤夷俟。

  子曰:「幼而不孫弟,長而無述焉,老而不死,是爲賊。」

  以杖叩其脛。

Confucius's conduct to an unmannerly old man of his acquaintance.
Yüan Zang was squatting on his heels, and so waited the approach of the Master, who said to him, "In youth not humble as befits a junior; in manhood, doing nothing worthy of being handed down; and living on to old age:-- this is to be a pest." With this he hit him on the shank with his staff.

 

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Chapter 47

  闕黨童子將命。

  或問之曰:「益者與?」

  子曰:「吾見其居於位也,見其與先生並行也。非求益者也,欲速成者也。」

Confucius's employment of a forward youth.
1. A youth of the village of Ch'üeh was employed by Confucius to carry the messages between him and his visitors. Some one asked about him, saying, "I suppose he has made great progress."

2. The Master said, "I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his elders. He is not one who is seeking to make progress in learning. He wishes quickly to become a man."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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1501, 1502, 1503, 1504, 1505, 1506, 1507, 1508, 1509, 1510, 1511, 1512, 1513, 1514, 1515, 1516, 1517, 1518, 1519, 1520, 1521, 1522, 1523, 1524, 1525, 1526, 1527, 1528, 1529, 1530, 1531, 1532, 1533, 1534, 1535, 1536, 1537, 1538, 1539, 1540, 1541

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

衞靈公第十五

Book XV: Wei Ling Kung

 

<a name="docA1501">

Chapter 1

   衞靈公問陳於孔子

  孔子對曰:「俎豆之事,則嘗聞之矣。軍旅之事,未之學也。」

  明日遂行。

  在陳絕糧。從者病,莫能興。

  子路慍見曰:「君子亦有窮乎?」

  子曰:「君子固窮,小人窮斯濫矣。」

Confucius refuses to talk on military affairs. In the midst of distress, he shows the disciples how the superior man is above distress.
1. The duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about tactics. Confucius replied, "I have heard all about sacrificial vessels, but I have not learned military matters." On this, he took his departure the next day.

2. When he was in Chan, their provisions were exhausted, and his followers became so ill that they were unable to rise.

3. Tsze-lû, with evident dissatisfaction, said, "Has the superior man likewise to endure in this way?" The Master said, "The superior man may indeed have to endure want, but the mean man, when he is in want, gives way to unbridled license."

<a name=a411101005>
104,11,10,10,05 記錄始
104,11,10,08,52 劉鑫漢讀到「衞靈公問陳於孔子」
孔子回答「軍旅之事,未之學也。」所以,
「衞靈公問於孔子」應該更正為
「衞靈公問於孔子」
104,11,10,09,45 在谷勾 google.com
查「衞靈公問陣於孔子」,得到 2580 個結果
104,11,10,09,46 在谷勾 google.com
查「衞靈公問陳於孔子」,得到 6710 個結果
劉鑫漢感到意外,因為
「問陣」與「軍旅」相關,得到 2580 個結果
「問陳」與「軍旅」無關,得到 6710 個結果
請讀者自行考證。
104,11,10,10,15 記錄止

 

<a name="docA1502">

Chapter 2

  子曰:「賜也,女以予爲多學而識之者與?」

  對曰:「然。非與?」

  曰:「非也!予一以貫之。」

How Confucius aimed at the knowledge of an all-pervading unity.
1. The Master said, "Ts'ze, you think, I suppose, that I am one who learns many things and keeps them in memory?"

2. Tsze-kung replied, "Yes, -- but perhaps it is not so?"

3. "No," was the answer; "I seek a unity all pervading."

 

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Chapter 3

  子曰:「由,知德者鮮矣!」

Few really know virtue.
The Master said, "Yû, those who know virtue are few."

 

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Chapter 4

  子曰:「無爲而治者,其舜也與!夫何爲哉?恭己正南面而已矣。」

How Shun was able to govern without personal effort.
The Master said, "May not Shun be instanced as having governed efficiently without exertion? What did he do? He did nothing but gravely and reverently occupy his royal seat."

 

<a name="docA1505">

Chapter 5

  子張問行。

  子曰:「言忠信,行篤敬,雖蠻貊之邦行矣。言不忠信,行不篤敬,雖州里行乎哉?立則見其參於前也,在輿則見其倚於衡也,夫然後行。」

  子張書諸紳。

Conduct that will be appreciated in all parts of the world.
1. Tzu-Chang asked how a man should conduct himself, so as to be everywhere appreciated.

2. The Master said, "Let his words be sincere and truthful and his actions honorable and careful;-- such conduct may be practiced among the rude tribes of the South or the North. If his words be not sincere and truthful, and his actions not honorable and careful, will he, with such conduct, be appreciated, even in his neighborhood?

3. "When he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were, fronting him. When he is in a carriage, let him see them attached to the yoke. Then may he subsequently carry them into practice."

4. Tzu-Chang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash.

 

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Chapter 6

  子曰:「直哉史魚!邦有道,如矢;邦無道,如矢。君子哉蘧伯玉!邦有道,則仕;邦無道,則可卷而懷之。」

The admirable characters of Tsze-yû and Chü Po-yü.
1. The Master said, "Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yü. When good government prevailed in his state, he was like an arrow. When bad government prevailed, he was like an arrow.

2. "A superior man indeed is Chü Po-yü! When good government prevails in his state, he is to be found in office. When bad government prevails, he can roll his principles up, and keep them in his breast."

 

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Chapter 7

  子曰:「可與言而不與言,失人。不可與言而與之言,失言。知者不失人,亦不失言。」

There are men with whom to speak, and men with whom to keep silence. The wise know them.
The Master said, "When a man may be spoken with, not to speak to him is to err in reference to the man. When a man may not be spoken with, to speak to him is to err in reference to our words. The wise err neither in regard to their man nor to their words."

 

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Chapter 8

  子曰:「志士仁人,無求生以害仁,有殺身以成仁。」

High natures value virtue more than life.
The Master said, "The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seek to live at the expense of injuring their virtue. They will even sacrifice their lives to preserve their virtue complete."

 

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Chapter 9

  子貢問爲仁。

  子曰:「工欲善其事,必先利其器。居是邦也,事其大夫之賢者,友其士之仁者。」

How intercourse with the good aids the practice of virtue.
Tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. The Master said, "The mechanic, who wishes to do his work well, must first sharpen his tools. When you are living in any state, take service with the most worthy among its great officers, and make friends of the most virtuous among its scholars."

 

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Chapter 10

  顏淵問爲邦。

  子曰:「行夏之時,乘殷之輅,服周之冕,樂則《韶》、《舞》。放鄭聲,遠佞人。鄭聲淫,佞人殆。」

Certain rules, exemplified in the ancient dynasties, to be followed in governing:-- a reply to Yen Yüan.
1. Yen Yüan asked how the government of a country should be administered.

2. The Master said, "Follow the seasons of Hsiâ.

3. "Ride in the state carriage of Yin.

4. "Wear the ceremonial cap of Châu.

5. "Let the music be the Shâo with its pantomimes.

6. "Banish the songs of Chang, and keep far from specious talkers. The songs of Chang are licentious; specious talkers are dangerous."

 

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Chapter 11

  子曰:「人無遠慮,必有近憂。」

The necessity of forethought and precaution.
The Master said, "If a man take no thought about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand."

 

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Chapter 12

  子曰:「已矣乎!吾未見好德如好色者也!」

The rarity of a true love of virtue.
The Master said, "It is all over! I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty."

 

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Chapter 13

  子曰:「臧文仲其竊位者與?知柳下惠之賢而不與立也。」

Against jealousy of others' talents:-- the case of Tsang Wan, and Hûi of Liû-hsiâ.
The Master said, "Was not Tsang Wan like one who had stolen his situation? He knew the virtue and the talents of Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, and yet did not procure that he should stand with him in court."

 

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Chapter 14

  子曰:「躬自厚而薄責於人,則遠怨矣!」

The way to ward off resentments.
The Master said, "He who requires much from himself and little from others, will keep himself from being the object of resentment."

 

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Chapter 15

  子曰:「不曰‘如之何,如之何’者,吾末如之何也已矣。」

Nothing can be made of people who take things easily, not giving themselves the trouble to think.
The Master said, "When a man is not in the habit of saying -- 'What shall I think of this? What shall I think of this?' I can indeed do nothing with him!"

 

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Chapter 16

  子曰:「羣居終日,言不及義,好行小慧,難矣哉!」

Against frivolous talkers and superficial speculators.
The Master said, "When a number of people are together, for a whole day, without their conversation turning on righteousness, and when they are fond of carrying out the suggestions of a small shrewdness;-- theirs is indeed a hard case."

 

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Chapter 17

  子曰:「君子義以爲質,禮以行之,孫以出之,信以成之。君子哉!」

The conduct of the superior man is righteous, courteous, humble, and sincere.
The Master said, "The superior man in everything considers righteousness to be essential. He performs it according to the rules of propriety. He brings it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a superior man."

 

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Chapter 18

  子曰:「君子病無能焉,不病人之不己知也。」

Our own incompetency, and not our reputation, the proper business of concern to us.
The Master said, "The superior man is distressed by his want of ability. He is not distressed by men's not knowing him."

 

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Chapter 19

  子曰:「君子疾沒世而名不稱焉。」

The superior man wishes to be had in remembrance.
The Master said, "The superior man dislikes the thought of his name not being mentioned after his death."

 

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Chapter 20

  子曰:「君子求諸己,小人求諸人。」

His own approbation is the superior man's rule. The approbation of others is the mean man's.
The Master said, "What the superior man seeks, is in himself. What the mean man seeks, is in others."

 

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Chapter 21

  子曰:「君子矜而不爭,羣而不黨。」

The superior man is dignified and affable, without the faults to which those qualities often lead.
The Master said, "The superior man is dignified, but does not wrangle. He is sociable, but not a partisan."

 

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Chapter 22

  子曰:「君子不以言舉人,不以人廢言。」

The superior man is discriminating in his employment of men and judging of statements.
The Master said, "The superior man does not promote a man simply on account of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man."

 

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Chapter 23

  子貢問曰:「有一言而可以終身行之者乎?」

  子曰:「其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施於人。」

The great principle of reciprocity is the rule of life.
Tsze-kung asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not RECIPROCITY such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."

 

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Chapter 24

  子曰:「吾之於人也,誰毀誰譽?如有所譽者,其有所試矣。斯民也,三代之所以直道而行也。」

Confucius showed his respect for men by strict truthfulness in awarding praise or censure.
1. The Master said, "In my dealings with men, whose evil do I blame, whose goodness do I praise, beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes exceed in praise, there must be ground for it in my examination of the individual.

2. "This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the path of straightforwardness."

 

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Chapter 25

  子曰:「吾猶及史之闕文也。有馬者借人乘之,今亡矣夫!」

Instances of the degeneracy of Confucius's times.
The Master said, "Even in my early days, a historiographer would leave a blank in his text, and he who had a horse would lend him to another to ride. Now, alas! there are no such things."

 

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Chapter 26

  子曰:「巧言亂德。小不忍則亂大謀。」

The danger of specious words, and of impatience.
The Master said, "Specious words confound virtue. Want of forbearance in small matters confounds great plans."

 

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Chapter 27

  子曰:「眾惡之,必察焉。眾好之,必察焉。」

In judging of a man, we must not be guided by his being generally liked or disliked.
The Master said, "When the multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examine into the case. When the multitude like a man, it is necessary to examine into the case."

 

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Chapter 28

  子曰:「人能弘道,非道弘人。」

Priciples of duty an instrument in the hand of man.
The Master said, "A man can enlarge the principles which he follows; those principles do not enlarge the man."

 

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Chapter 29

  子曰:「過而不改,是謂過矣!」

The culpability of not reforming known faults.
The Master said, "To have faults and not to reform them, -- this, indeed, should be pronounced having faults."

 

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Chapter 30

  子曰:「吾嘗終日不食,終夜不寢,以思,無益,不如學也。」

The fruitlessness of thinking, without reading.
The Master said, "I have been the whole day without eating, and the whole night without sleeping:-- occupied with thinking. It was of no use. The better plan is to learn."

 

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Chapter 31

  子曰:「君子謀道不謀食。耕也,餒在其中矣。學也,祿在其中矣。君子憂道不憂貧。」

The superior man should not be mercenary, but have truth for his object.
The Master said, "The object of the superior man is truth. Food is not his object. There is plowing;-- even in that there is sometimes want. So with learning;-- emolument may be found in it. The superior man is anxious lest he should not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon him."

 

<a name="docA1532">

Chapter 32

  子曰:「知及之,仁不能守之,雖得之,必失之。知及之,仁能守之,不莊以涖之,則民不敬。知及之,仁能守之,莊以涖之,動之不以禮,未善也。」

How knowledge without virtue is not lasting, and to knowledge and virtue a ruler should add dignity and the rules of propriety.
1. The Master said, "When a man's knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he may have gained, he will lose again.

2. "When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the people will not respect him.

3. "When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast; when he governs also with dignity, yet if he try to move the people contrary to the rules of propriety:-- full excellence is not reached."

 

<a name="docA1533">

Chapter 33

  子曰:「君子不可小知而可大受也,小人不可大受而可小知也。」

How to know the superior man and the mean man; and their capacities.
The Master said, "The superior man cannot be known in little matters; but he may be intrusted with great concerns. The small man may not be intrusted with great concerns, but he may be known in little matters."

 

<a name="docA1534">

Chapter 34

  子曰:「民之於仁也,甚於水火。水火,吾見蹈而死者矣,未見蹈仁而死者也。」

Virtue more to man than water or fire, and never hurtful to him.
The Master said, "Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. I have seen men die from treading on water and fire, but I have never seen a man die from treading the course of virtue."

 

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Chapter 35

  子曰:「當仁,不讓於師。」

Virtue personal and obligatory on every man.
The Master said, "Let every man consider virtue as what devolves on himself. He may not yield the performance of it even to his teacher."

 

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Chapter 36

  子曰:「君子貞而不諒。」

The superior man's firmness is based on right.
The Master said, "The superior man is correctly firm, and not firm merely."

 

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Chapter 37

  子曰:「事君,敬其事而後其食。」

The faithful minister.
The Master said, "A minister, in serving his prince, reverently discharges his duties, and makes his emolument a secondary consideration."

 

<a name="docA1538">

Chapter 38

  子曰:「有教無類。」

The comprehensiveness of teaching.
The Master said, "In teaching there should be no distinction of classes."

 

<a name="docA1539">

Chapter 39

  子曰:「道不同,不相爲謀。」

Agreement in principle necessary to concord in plans.
The Master said, "Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for one another."

 

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Chapter 40

  子曰:「辭,達而已矣!」

Perspicuity the chief virtue of language.
The Master said, "In language it is simply required that it convey the meaning."

 

<a name="docA1541">

Chapter 41

   師冕見。

  及階,子曰:「階也!」

  及席,子曰:「席也!」

  皆坐,子告之曰:「某在斯,某在斯。」

  師冕出。

  子張問曰:「與師言之道與?」

  子曰:「然,固相師之道也。」

Consideration of Confucius for the blind.
1. The music master, Mien, having called upon him, when they came to the steps, the Master said, "Here are the steps." When they came to the mat for the guest to sit upon, he said, "Here is the mat." When all were seated, the Master informed him, saying, "So and so is here; so and so is here."

2. The music master, Mien, having gone out, Tzu-Chang asked, saying. "Is it the rule to tell those things to the music master?"

3. The Master said, "Yes. This is certainly the rule for those who lead the blind."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



<a name="docA1600">
1601, 1602, 1603, 1604, 1605, 1606, 1607, 1608, 1609, 1610, 1611, 1612, 1613, 1614

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

季氏第十六

Book XVI: Chi Shih

 

<a name="docA1601">

Chapter 1

  季氏將伐顓臾。

  冉有、季路見於孔子曰:「季氏將有事於顓臾。」

  孔子曰:「求!無乃爾是過與?夫顓臾,昔者先王以爲東蒙主,且在邦域之中矣,是社稷之臣也,何以伐爲?」

  冉有曰:「夫子欲之。吾二臣者皆不欲也。」

  孔子曰:「求!周任有言曰:‘陳力就列,不能者止。’危而不持,顛而不扶,則將焉用彼相矣?且爾言過矣。虎兕出於柙,龜玉毀於櫝中,是誰之過與?」

  冉有曰:「今夫顓臾,固而近於費。今不取,後世必爲子孫憂。」

  孔子曰:「求!君子疾夫舍曰‘欲之’而必爲之辭。丘也聞有國有家者,不患貧而患不均,不患寡而患不安。蓋均無貧,和無寡,安無傾。夫如是,故遠人不服,則脩文德以來之。旣來之,則安之。今由與求也,相夫子,遠人不服而不能來也,邦分崩離析而不能守也,而謀動干戈於邦內。吾恐季孫之憂,不在顓臾,而在蕭牆之內也!」

Confucius exposes the presumptuous and impolitic conduct of the chief of the Chî family in proposing to attack a minor state,a dn rebukes Zan Yû and Tsze-lû for abetting the design.
1. The head of the Chî family was going to attack Chwan-yü.

2. Zan Yû and Chî-lû had an interview with Confucius, and said, "Our chief, Chî, is going to commence operations against Chwan-yü."

3. Confucius said, "Ch'iû, is it not you who are in fault here?

4. "Now, in regard to Chwan-yü, long ago, a former king appointed its ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mang; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our state; and its ruler is a minister in direct connection with the sovereign:-- What has your chief to do with attacking it?"

5. Zan Yû said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministers wishes it."

6. Confucius said, "Ch'iû, there are the words of Châu Zan, -- 'When he can put forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up when fallen?'

7. "And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured in its repository:-- whose is the fault?"

8. Zan Yû said, "But at present, Chwan-yü is strong and near to Pî; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants."

9. Confucius said. "Ch'iû, the superior man hates those declining to say -- 'I want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for their conduct.

10. "I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. For when the people keep their several places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings.

11. "So it is. -- Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented and tranquil.

12. "Now, here are you, Yû and Ch'iû, assisting your chief. Remoter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it.

13. "And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the state. -- I am afraid that the sorrow of the Chî-sun family will not be on account of Chwan-yü, but will be found within the screen of their own court."

 

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Chapter 2

  孔子曰:「天下有道,則禮樂征伐自天子出。天下無道,則禮樂征伐自諸侯出。自諸侯出,蓋十世希不失矣。自大夫出,五世希不失矣。陪臣執國命,三世希不失矣。天下有道,則政不在大夫。天下有道,則庶人不議。」

The supreme authority ought ever to maintain its power. The violation of this rule always leads to ruin, which is speedier as the rank of the violator is lower.
1. Confucius said, "When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the great officers of the princes, as a rule, the case will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the state, as a rule the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three generations.

2. "When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in the hands of the great officers.

3. "When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no discussions among the common people."

 

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Chapter 3

  孔子曰:「祿之去公室,五世矣;政逮於大夫,四世矣:故夫三桓之子孫微矣。」

Illustration of the principles of the last chapter.
Confucius said, "The revenue of the state has left the ducal house now for five generations. The government has been in the hands of the great officers for four generations. On this account, the descendants of the three Hwan are much reduced."

 

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Chapter 4

  孔子曰:「益者三友,損者三友。友直,友諒,友多聞,益矣。友便辟,友善柔,友便佞,損矣。」

Three friendships advantageous, and three injurious.
Confucius said, "There are three friendships which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendship with the uplight; friendship with the sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation:-- these are advantageous. Friendship with the man of specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft; and friendship with the glib-tongued:-- these are injurious."

 

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Chapter 5

  孔子曰:「益者三樂,損者三樂。樂節禮樂,樂道人之善,樂多賢友,益矣。樂驕樂,樂佚遊,樂宴樂,損矣。」

Three sources of enjoyment advantageous, and three injurious.
Confucius said, "There are three things men find enjoyment in which are advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find enjoyment in speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in having many worthy friends:-- these are advantageous. To find enjoyment in extravagant pleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment in the pleasures of feasting:-- these are injurious."

 

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Chapter 6

  孔子曰:「侍於君子有三愆:言未及之而言謂之‘躁’,言及之而不言謂之‘隱’,未見顏色而言謂之‘瞽’。」

Three errors in regard to speech to be avoided in the presence of the great.
Confucius said, "There are three errors to which they who stand in the presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. They may speak when it does not come to them to speak;-- this is called rashness. They may not speak when it comes to them to speak;-- this is called concealment. They may speak without looking at the countenance of their superior;-- this is called blindness."

 

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Chapter 7

  孔子曰:「君子有三戒:少之時,血氣未定,戒之在色;及其壯也,血氣方剛,戒之在鬭;及其老也,血氣旣衰,戒之在得。」

The vices which youth, manhood, and age respectively have to guard against.
Confucius said, "There are three things which the superior man guards against. In youth, when the physical powers are not yet settled, he guards against lust. When he is strong and the physical powers are full of vigor, he guards against quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers are decayed, he guards against covetousness."

 

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Chapter 8

  孔子曰:「君子有三畏:畏天命,畏大人,畏聖人之言。小人不知天命而不畏也,狎大人,侮聖人之言。」

Contrast of the superior and the mean man in regard to the three things of which the former stands in awe.
1. Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages.

2. "The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of the words of sages."

 

<a name="docA1609">

Chapter 9

  孔子曰:「生而知之者,上也。學而知之者,次也。困而學之,又其次也。困而不學,民斯爲下矣!」

Four classes of men in relation to knowledge.
Confucius said, "Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. Those who learn, and so, readily, get possession of knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning, are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn;-- they are the lowest of the people."

 

<a name="docA1610">

Chapter 10

  孔子曰:「君子有九思:視思明,聽思聰,色思溫,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思問,忿思難,見得思義。」

Nine subjects of thought to the superior man:-- various instances of the way in which he regulates himself.
Confucius said, "The superior man has nine things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign. In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difficulties (his anger may involve him in). When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness."

 

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Chapter 11

  孔子曰:「‘見善如不及,見不善如探湯。’吾見其人矣,吾聞其語矣。‘隱居以求其志,行義以達其道。’吾聞其語矣,未見其人也。」

The contemporaries of Confucius could eschew evil, and follow after good, but no one of the highest capacity had appeared among them.
1. Confucius said, "Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could not reach it; contemplating evil! and shrinking from it, as they would from thrusting the hand into boiling water:-- I have seen such men, as I have heard such words.

2. "Living in retirement to study their aims, and practicing righteousness to carry out their principles:-- I have heard these words, but I have not seen such men."

 

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Chapter 12

  齊景公有馬千駟,死之日,民無德而稱焉。伯夷、叔齊餓于首陽之下,民到于今稱之。其斯之謂與?

Wealth without virtue and virtue without wealth;-- their different appreciations.
1. The Duke Ching of Ch'î had a thousand teams, each of four horses, but on the day of his death, the people did not praise him for a single virtue. Po-î and Shû-ch'î died of hunger at the foot of the Shâu-yang mountain, and the people, down to the present time, praise them.

2. "Is not that saying illustrated by this?"

 

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Chapter 13

  陳亢問於伯魚曰:「子亦有異聞乎?」

  對曰:「未也。嘗獨立。鯉趨而過庭。曰:‘學《詩》乎?’對曰:‘未也。’‘不學《詩》,無以言。’鯉退而學《詩》。他日,又獨立。鯉趨而過庭。曰:‘學禮乎?’對曰:‘未也。’‘不學禮,無以立。’鯉退而學禮。聞斯二者。」

  陳亢退而喜,曰:「問一得三:聞《詩》,聞禮,又聞君子之遠其子也。」

Confucius's instruction of his son not different from his instruction of the disciples generally.
1. Ch'an K'ang asked Po-yü, saying, "Have you heard any lessons from your father different from what we have all heard?"

2. Po-yü replied, "No. He was standing alone once, when I passed below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the Odes?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse with.' I retired and studied the Odes.

3. "Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed by below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the rules of Propriety?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your character cannot be established.' I then retired, and learned the rules of Propriety.

4. "I have heard only these two things from him."

5. Ch'ang K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "I asked one thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards his son."

<a name=a411101431>
104,11,10,14,31 註始
孔子的兒子為「孔鯉」。孔子得子時,魯君賜贈鯉魚予孔子,故孔子為兒子命名為「孔鯉」。
104,11,10,14,35 註止

 

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Chapter 14

  邦君之妻,君稱之曰 「夫人」。夫人自稱曰「小童」。邦人稱之曰「君夫人」。稱諸異邦曰「寡小君」。異邦人稱之,亦曰「君夫人」。

Appellations for the wife of a ruler.
The wife of the prince of a state is called by him FÛ ZAN. She calls herself HSIÂO T'UNG. The people of the state call her CHÜN FÛ ZAN, and, to the people of other states, they call her K'WA HSIÂO CHÜN. The people of other states also call her CHÜN FÛ ZAN.

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



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1701, 1702, 1703, 1704, 1705, 1706, 1707, 1708, 1709, 1710, 1711, 1712, 1713, 1714, 1715, 1716, 1717, 1718, 1719, 1720, 1721, 1722, 1723, 1724, 1725, 1726

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

陽貨第十七

Book XVII: Yang Ho

 

<a name="docA1701">

Chapter 1

  陽貨欲見孔子,孔子不見。歸孔子豚。

  孔子時其亡也,而往拜之。

  遇諸塗。

  謂孔子曰:「來!予與爾言。」曰:「懷其寶而迷其邦,可謂仁乎?」曰:「不可。——好從事而亟失時,可謂知乎?」曰:「不可。——日月逝矣,歲不我與。」

  孔子曰:「諾,吾將仕矣。」

Confucius's polite but dignified treatment of a powerful, but usurping and unworthy, officer.
1. Yang Ho wished to see Confucius, but Confucius would not go to see him. On this, he sent a present of a pig to Confucius, who, having chosen a time when Ho was not at home, went to pay his respects for the gift. He met him, however, on the way.

2. Ho said to Confucius, "Come, let me speak with you." He then asked, "Can he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom, and leaves his country to confusion?" Confucius replied, "No." "Can he be called wise, who is anxious to be engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of being so?" Confucius again said, "No." "The days and months are passing away; the years do not wait for us." Confucius said, "Right; I will go into office."

 

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Chapter 2

  子曰:「性相近也,習相遠也。」

The differences in the characters of men are chiefly owing to habit.
The Master said, "By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart."

 

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Chapter 3

  子曰:「唯上知與下愚不移。」

Only two classes whom practice cannot change.
The Master said, "There are only the wise of the highest class, and the stupid of the lowest class, who cannot be changed."

 

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Chapter 4

  子之武城,聞弦歌之聲。

  夫子莞爾而笑曰:「割雞焉用牛刀?」

  子游對曰:「昔者,偃也聞諸夫子曰:‘君子學道則愛人,小人學道則易使也。’」

  子曰:「二三子!偃之言是也。前言戲之耳。」

However small the sphere of government, the highest influences of proprieties and music should be employed.
1. The Master, having come to Wû-ch'ang, heard there the sound of stringed instruments and singing.

2. Well pleased and smiling, he said, "Why use an ox knife to kill a fowl?"

3. Tsze-yû replied, "Formerly, Master, I heard you say, -- 'When the man of high station is well instructed, he loves men; when the man of low station is well instructed, he is easily ruled.'"

4. The Master said, "My disciples, Yen's words are right. What I said was only in sport."

 

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Chapter 5

  公山弗擾以費畔,召,子欲往。

  子路不說,曰:「末之也已,何必公山氏之之也?」

  子曰:「夫召我者,而豈徒哉?如有用我者,吾其爲東周乎?」

The lengths to which Confucius was inclined to go, to get his principles carried into practice.
1. Kung-shan Fû-zâo, when he was holding Pi, and in an attitude of rebellion, invited the Master to visit him, who was rather inclined to go.

2. Tsze-lû was displeased. and said, "Indeed, you cannot go! Why must you think of going to see Kung-shan?"

3. The Master said, "Can it be without some reason that he has invited ME? If any one employ me, may I not make an eastern Châu?"

 

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Chapter 6

  子張問仁於孔子。

  孔子曰:「能行五者於天下,爲仁矣。」

  「請問之?」

  曰:「恭、寬、信、敏、惠。恭則不侮,寬則得眾,信則人任焉,敏則有功,惠則足以使人。」

Five things the practice of which constitutes perfect virtue.
Tzu-Chang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. Confucius said, "To be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue." He begged to ask what they were, and was told, "Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If you are grave, you will not be treated with disrespect. If you are generous, you will win all. If you are sincere, people will repose trust in you. If you are earnest, you will accomplish much. If you are kind, this will enable you to employ the services of others.

 

<a name="docA1707">

Chapter 7

  佛肸召,子欲往。

  子路曰:「昔者由也聞諸夫子曰:‘親於其身爲不善者,君子不入也’。佛肸以中牟畔,子之往也,如之何?」

  子曰:「然,有是言也。不曰‘堅’乎?磨而不磷。不曰‘白’乎?涅而不緇。吾豈匏瓜也哉?焉能繫而不食!」

Confucius, inclined to respond to the advances of an unworthy man, protests against his conduct being judged by ordinary rules.
1. Pî Hsî inviting him to visit him, the Master was inclined to go.

2. Tsze-lû said, "Master, formerly I have heard you say, 'When a man in his own person is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will not associate with him.' Pî Hsî is in rebellion, holding possession of Chung-mâu; if you go to him, what shall be said?"

3. The Master said, "Yes, I did use these words. But is it not said, that, if a thing be really hard, it may be ground without being made thin? Is it not said, that, if a thing be really white, it may be steeped in a dark fluid without being made black?

4. "Am I a bitter gourd? How can I be hung up out of the way of being eaten?"

 

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Chapter 8

  子曰:「由也,女聞六言六蔽矣乎?」

  對曰:「未也。」

  「居!吾語女。好仁不好學,其蔽也愚。好知不好學,其蔽也蕩。好信不好學,其蔽也賊。好直不好學,其蔽也絞。好勇不好學,其蔽也亂。好剛不好學,其蔽也狂。」

Knowledge, acquired by learning, is necessary to the completion of virtue, by preserving the mind from being beclouded.
1. The Master said, "Yû, have you heard the six words to which are attached six becloudings?" Yû replied, "I have not."

2. "Sit down, and I will tell them to you.

3. "There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning;-- the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing without the love of learning;-- the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning;-- the beclouding here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning;-- the beclouding here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning;-- the beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning;-- the beclouding here leads to extravagant conduct."

 

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Chapter 9

  子曰:「小子!何莫學夫《詩》?《詩》,可以興,可以觀,可以羣,可以怨。邇之事父,遠之事君,多識於鳥獸草木之名。」

Benefits derived from studying the Book of Poetry.
1. The Master said, "My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry?

2. "The Odes serve to stimulate the mind.

3. "They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.

4. "They teach the art of sociability.

5. "They show how to regulate feelings of resentment.

6. "From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, and the remoter one of serving one's prince.

7. "From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and plants."

 

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Chapter 10

  子謂伯魚曰:「女爲《周南》、《召南》矣乎?人而不爲《周南》、《召南》,其猶正牆面而立也與?」

The importance of studying the Châu-nan and Shâo-nan.
The Master said to Po-yü, "Do you give yourself to the Châu-nan and the Shâo-nan. The man who has not studied the Châu-nan and the Shâo-nan is like one who stands with his face right against a wall. Is he not so?"

 

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Chapter 11

  子曰:「禮云禮云,玉帛云乎哉!樂云樂云,鍾鼓云乎哉!」

It is not the external appurtenances which constitute propriety, nor the sound of instruments which constitute music.
The Master said, "'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say. -- 'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say. Are gems and silk all that is meant by propriety? 'It is music,' they say. -- 'It is music,' they say. Are bells and drums all that is meant by music?"

 

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Chapter 12

  子曰:「色厲而內荏,譬諸小人,其猶穿窬之盜也與!」

The meanness of presumption and pusillanimity conjoined.
The Master said, "He who puts on an appearance of stern firmness, while inwardly he is weak, is like one of the small, mean people;-- yea, is he not like the thief who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall?"

 

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Chapter 13

  子曰:「鄉原,德之賊也!」

Contentment with vulgar ways and views injurious to virtue.
The Master said, "Your good, careful people of the villages are the thieves of virtue."

 

<a name="docA1714">

Chapter 14

  子曰:「道聽而塗說,德之棄也!」

Swiftness to speak incompatible with the cultivation of virtue.
The Master said, "To tell, as we go along, what we have heard on the way, is to cast away our virtue."

 

<a name="docA1715">

Chapter 15

  子曰:「鄙夫可與事君也與哉!其未得之也,患得之。旣得之,患失之。苟患失之,無所不至矣。」

The case of mercenary officers, and how it is impossible to serve one's prince along with them.
1. The Master said, "There are those mean creatures! How impossible it is along with them to serve one's prince!

2. "While they have not got their aims, their anxiety is how to get them. When they have got them, their anxiety is lest they should lose them.

3. "When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to which they will not proceed."

 

<a name="docA1716">

Chapter 16

  子曰:「古者民有三疾,今也或是之亡也。古之狂也肆,今之狂也蕩。古之矜也廉,今之矜也忿戾。古之愚也直,今之愚也詐而已矣。」

The defects of former times become vices in the time of Confucius.
1. The Master said, "Anciently, men had three failings, which now perhaps are not to be found.

2. "The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of small things; the high-mindedness of the present day shows itself in wild license. The stern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave reserve; the stern dignity of the present day shows itself in quarrelsome perverseness. The stupidity of antiquity showed itself in straightforwardness; the stupidity of the present day shows itself in sheer deceit."

 

<a name="docA1717">

Chapter 17

  子曰:「巧言令色,鮮矣仁。」

See Book I Chapter III.
The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with virtue."

 

<a name="docA1718">

Chapter 18

  子曰:「惡紫之奪朱也,惡鄭聲之亂雅樂也,惡利口之覆邦家者。」

Confucius's indignation at the way in which the wrong overcame the right.
The Master said, "I hate the manner in which purple takes away the luster of vermilion. I hate the way in which the songs of Chang confound the music of the Ya. I hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms and families."

 

<a name="docA1719">

Chapter 19

  子曰:「予欲無言。」

  子貢曰:「子如不言,則小子何述焉?」

  子曰:「天何言哉?四時行焉,百物生焉。天何言哉?」

The actions of Confucius were lessons and laws, and not his words merely.
1. The Master said, "I would prefer not speaking."

2. Tsze-kung said, "If you, Master, do not speak, what shall we, your disciples, have to record?"

3. The Master said, "Does Heaven speak? The four seasons pursue their courses, and all things are continually being produced, but does Heaven say anything?"

 

<a name="docA1720">

Chapter 20

  孺悲欲見孔子,孔子辭以疾。將命者出戶,取瑟而歌,使之聞之。

How Confucius could be "not at home," and yet give intimation to the visitor of his presence.
Zû Pei wished to see Confucius, but Confucius declined, on the ground of being sick, to see him. When the bearer of this message went out at the door, (the Master) took his lute and sang to it, in order that Pei might hear him.

 

<a name="docA1721">

Chapter 21

  宰我問:「三年之喪,期已久矣。君子三年不爲禮,禮必壞;三年不爲樂,樂必崩。舊穀旣沒,新穀旣升,鑽燧改火,期可已矣。」

  子曰:「食夫稻,衣夫錦,於女安乎?」

  曰:「安。」

  「女安,則爲之!夫君子之居喪,食旨不甘,聞樂不樂,居處不安,故不爲也。今女安,則爲之!」

  宰我出。

  子曰:「予之不仁也!子生三年,然後免於父母之懷。夫三年之喪,天下之通喪也。予也有三年之愛於其父母乎?」

The period of three years' mourning for parents; it may not on any account be shortened; the reason of it.
1. Tsâi Wo asked about the three years' mourning for parents, saying that one year was long enough.

2. "If the superior man," said he, "abstains for three years from the observances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost. If for three years he abstains from music, music will be ruined.

3. "Within a year the old grain is exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and, in procuring fire by friction, we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. After a complete year, the mourning may stop."

4. The Master said, "If you were, after a year, to eat good rice, and wear embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?" "I should," replied Wo.

5. The Master said, "If you can feel at ease, do it. But a superior man, during the whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat, nor derive pleasure from music which he may hear. He also does not feel at ease, if he is comfortably lodged. Therefore he does not do what you propose. But now you feel at ease and may do it."

6. Tsâi Wo then went out, and the Master said, "This shows Yü's want of virtue. It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the arms of its parents. And the three years' mourning is universally observed throughout the empire. Did Yü enjoy the three years' love of his parents?"

 

<a name="docA1722">

Chapter 22

  子曰:「飽食終日,無所用心,難矣哉!不有博弈者乎?爲之猶賢乎已!」

The hopeless case of gluttony and idleness.
The Master said, "Hard is it to deal with who will stuff himself with food the whole day, without applying his mind to anything good! Are there not gamesters and chess players? To be one of these would still be better than doing nothing at all."

 

<a name="docA1723">

Chapter 23

  子路曰:「君子尚勇乎?」

  子曰:「君子義以爲上。君子有勇而無義爲亂,小人有勇而無義爲盜。」

Valour to be valued only in subordination to righteousness; its consequences apart from that.
Tsze-lû said, "Does the superior man esteem valor?" The Master said, "The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a superior situation, having valor without righteousness, will be guilty of insubordination; one of the lower people having valor without righteousness, will commit robbery."

 

<a name="docA1724">

Chapter 24

  子貢曰:「君子亦有惡乎?」

  子曰:「有惡。惡稱人之惡者,惡居下流而訕上者,惡勇而無禮者,惡果敢而窒者。」

  曰:「賜也亦有惡乎?」

  「惡徼以爲知者,惡不孫以爲勇者,惡訐以爲直者。」

Characters disliked by Confucius and Tsze-kung.
1. Tsze-kung said, "Has the superior man his hatreds also?" The Master said, "He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. He hates the man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates those who have valor merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He hates those who are forward and determined, and, at the same time, of contracted understanding."

2. The Master then inquired, "Ts'ze, have you also your hatreds?" Tsze-kung replied, "I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to their wisdom. I hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are valorous. I hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are straightforward."

 

<a name="docA1725">

Chapter 25

  子曰:「唯女子與小人爲難養也!近之則不孫,遠之則怨。」

The difficulty how to treat concubines and servants.
The Master said, "Of all people, girls and servants are the most difficult to behave to. If you are familiar with them, they lose their humility. If you maintain a reserve towards them, they are discontented."

 

<a name="docA1726">

Chapter 26

  子曰:「年四十而見惡焉,其終也已!」

The difficulty of improvement in advanced years.
The Master said, "When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will always continue what he is."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



<a name="docA1800">
1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809, 1810, 1811

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

微子第十八

Book XVIII: Wei Tzu

 

<a name="docA1801">

Chapter 1

  微子去之,箕子爲之奴,比干諫而死。

  孔子曰:「殷有三仁焉。」

The viscounts of Wei and Chî, and Pî-kan:-- three worthies of the Yin dynasty.
1. The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount of Chî became a slave to Châu. Pî-kan remonstrated with him and died.

2. Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue."

 

<a name="docA1802">

Chapter 2

  柳下惠爲士師,三黜。

  人曰:「子未可以去乎?」

  曰:「直道而事人,焉往而不三黜?枉道而事人,何必去父母之邦?」

How Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, thought often dismissed from office, still clave to his country.
Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, "Is it not yet time for you, sir, to leave this?" He replied, "Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?"

 

<a name="docA1803">

Chapter 3

  齊景公待孔子曰:「若季氏,則吾不能;以季、孟之間待之。」

  曰:「吾老矣,不能用也。」

  孔子行。

How Confucius left Ch'î, when the duke could not appreciate and employ him.
The duke Ching of Ch'î, with reference to the manner in which he should treat Confucius, said, "I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Chî family. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of the Chî, and that given to the chief of the Mang family." He also said, "I am old; I cannot use his doctrines." Confucius took his departure.

 

<a name="docA1804">

Chapter 4

  齊人歸女樂。

  季桓子受之,三日不朝。

  孔子行。

How Confucius gave up official service in Lû.
The people of Ch'î sent to Lû a present of female musicians, which Chî Hwan received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his departure.

 

<a name="docA1805">

Chapter 5

  楚狂接輿歌而過孔子曰:「鳳兮鳳兮!何德之衰?往者不可諫,來者猶可追。已而!已而!今之從政者殆而!」

  孔子下,欲與之言。趨而辟之,不得與之言。

Confucius and the madman of Ch'û, who blames his not retiring from the world.
1. The madman of Ch'û, Chieh-yü, passed by Confucius, singing and saying, "O FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may still be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government."

2. Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Chieh-yü hastened away, so that he could not talk with him.

 

<a name="docA1806">

Chapter 6

  長沮、桀溺耦而耕。孔子過之,使子路問津焉。

  長沮曰:「夫執輿者爲誰?」

  子路曰:「爲孔丘。」

  曰:「是魯孔丘與?」

  曰:「是也。」

  曰:「是知津矣。」

  問於桀溺。

  桀溺曰:「子爲誰?」

  曰:「爲仲由。」

  曰:「是魯孔丘之徒與?」

  對曰:「然。」

  曰:「滔滔者,天下皆是也,而誰以易之?且而與其從辟人之士也,豈若從辟世之士哉?」

  耰而不輟。

  子路行以告。

  夫子憮然曰:「鳥獸不可與同羣,吾非斯人之徒與而誰與?天下有道,丘不與易也。」

Confucius and the two recluses, Ch'ang-tsü and Chieh-nî; why he would not withdraw from the world.
1. Ch'ang-tsü and Chieh-nî were at work in the field together, when Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-lû to inquire for the ford.

2. Ch'ang-tsü said, "Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?" Tsze-lû told him, "It is K'ung Ch'iû.', "Is it not K'ung Ch'iû of Lû?" asked he. "Yes," was the reply, to which the other rejoined, "He knows the ford."

3. Tsze-lû then inquired of Chieh-nî, who said to him, "Who are you, sir?" He answered, "I am Chung Yû." "Are you not the disciple of K'ung Ch'iû of Lû?" asked the other. "I am," replied he, and then Chieh-nî said to him, "Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will change its state for you? Rather than follow one who merely withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the world altogether?" With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with his work, without stopping.

4. Tsze-lû went and reported their remarks, when the Master observed with a sigh, "It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they were the same with us. If I associate not with these people, -- with mankind, -- with whom shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the empire, there would be no use for me to change its state."

 

<a name="docA1807">

Chapter 7

  子路從而後,遇丈人,以杖荷蓧。

  子路問曰:「子見夫子乎?」

  丈人曰:「四體不勤,五穀不分。孰爲夫子?」
(原為「四禮不勤」 104,11,10,15,17 更改為「四體不勤」)

  植其杖而芸。

  子路拱而立。

  止子路宿,殺雞爲黍而食之,見其二子焉。

  明日,子路行以告。

  子曰:「隱者也。」

  使子路反見之。至則行矣。

  子路曰:「不仕無義。長幼之節,不可廢也。君臣之義,如之何其廢之?欲潔其身,而亂大倫。君子之仕也,行其義也。道之不行,已知之矣!」

(原為「欲絜其身」 104,11,10,15,23 更改為「欲潔其身」)

Tsze-lû's recontre with an old man, a recluse: his vindication of his master's course.
1. Tsze-lû, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old man, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. Tsze-lû said to him, "Have you seen my master, sir?" The old man replied, "Your four limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain:-- who is your master?" With this, he planted his staff in the ground, and proceeded to weed.

2. Tsze-lû joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.

3. The old man kept Tsze-lû to pass the night in his house, killed a fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his two sons.

4. Next day, Tsze-lû went on his way, and reported his adventure. The Master said, "He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-lû back to see him again, but when he got to the place, the old man was gone.

5. Tsze-lû then said to the family, "Not to take office is not righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right principles to make progress, he is aware of that."

 

<a name="docA1808">

Chapter 8

  逸民:伯夷、叔齊、虞仲、夷逸、朱張、柳下惠、少連。

  子曰:「不降其志,不辱其身,伯夷、叔齊與?」

  謂柳下惠、少連:「降志辱身矣。言中倫,行中慮,其斯而已矣。」

  謂虞仲、夷逸:「隱居放言,身中清,廢中權。我則異於是,無可無不可。」

Confucius's judgment of former worthies who had kept from the world.
1. The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Po-î, Shû-ch'î, Yü-chung, Î-yî, Chû-chang, Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, and Shâo-lien.

2. The Master said, "Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any taint in their persons;-- such, I think, were Po-î and Shû-ch'î.

3. "It may be said of Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, and of Shâo-lien, that they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words corresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is to be remarked in them.

4. "It may be said of Yü-chung and Î-yî, that, while they hid themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their words; but in their persons, they succeeded in preserving their purity, and, in their retirement, they acted according to the exigency of the times.

5. "I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined."

 

<a name="docA1809">

Chapter 9

  大師摯適齊,亞飯干適楚,三飯繚適蔡,四飯缺適秦,鼓方叔入於河,播鼗武入於漢,少師陽、擊磬襄入於海。

The dispersion of the musicians of Lû.
1. The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'î.

2. Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ch'û. Liâo, the band master at the third meal, went to Ts'âi. Chüeh, the band master at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in.

3. Fang-shû, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river.

4. Wû, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the Han.

5. Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of the musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea.

 

<a name="docA1810">

Chapter 10

  周公謂魯公曰:「君子不施其親,不使大臣怨乎不以。故舊無大故,則不棄也。無求備於一人。」

Instructions of Châu-kung to his son about government; a generous consideration of others to be cherished.
The duke of Châu addressed his son, the duke of Lû, saying, "The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations. He does not cause the great ministers to repine at his not employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek in one man talents for every employment."

 

<a name="docA1811">

Chapter 11

  周有八士:伯達、伯适、仲突、仲忽、叔夜、叔夏、季隨、季騧。

The fruitfulness of the early time of the Châu dynasty in able officers.
To Châu belonged the eight officers, Po-tâ, Po-kwô, Chung-tû, Chung-hwû, Shû-yâ, Shû-hsiâ, Chî-sui, and Chî-kwa.

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



<a name="docA1900">
1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

子張第十九

Book XIX: Tzu-Chang

 

<a name="docA1901">

Chapter 1

   子張曰:「士見危致命,見得思義,祭思敬,喪思哀,其可已矣。」

Tzu-Chang's opinion of the chief attributes of a true scholar.
Tzu-Chang said, "The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. When the opportunity of gain is presented to him, he thinks of righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are reverential. In mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should feel. Such a man commands our approbation indeed."

 

<a name="docA1902">

Chapter 2

  子張曰:「執德不弘,信道不篤,焉能爲有?焉能爲亡?」

Tzu-Chang on narrow-mindedness and a hesitating faith.
Tzu-Chang said, "When a man holds fast to virtue, but without seeking to enlarge it, and believes in right principles, but without firm sincerity, what account can be made of his existence or non-existence?"

 

<a name="docA1903">

Chapter 3

  子夏之門人問交於子張。

  子張曰:「子夏云何?」

  對曰:「子夏曰:‘可者與之,其不可者拒之。’」

  子張曰:「異乎吾所聞:‘君子尊賢而容眾,嘉善而矜不能。’我之大賢與,於人何所不容?我之不賢與,人將拒我,如之何其拒人也?」

The different opinions of Tsze-Hsiâ and Tzu-Chang on the principles which should regulate our intercourse with others.
The disciples of Tsze-hsiâ asked Tzu-Chang about the principles that should characterize mutual intercourse. Tzu-Chang asked, "What does Tsze-hsiâ say on the subject?" They replied, "Tsze-hsiâ says: 'Associate with those who can advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot do so.'" Tzu-Chang observed, "This is different from what I have learned. The superior man honors the talented and virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue? -- who is there among men whom I will not bear with? Am I devoid of talents and virtue? -- men will put me away from them. What have we to do with the putting away of others?"

 

<a name="docA1904">

Chapter 4

  子夏曰:「雖小道,必有可觀者焉。致遠恐泥,是以君子不爲也。」

Tsze-hsiâ's opinion of the inapplicability of small pursuits to great objects.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "Even in inferior studies and employments there is something worth being looked at; but if it be attempted to carry them out to what is remote, there is a danger of their proving inapplicable. Therefore, the superior man does not practice them."

 

<a name="docA1905">

Chapter 5

  子夏曰:「日知其所亡,月無忘其所能,可謂好學也已矣。」

The indications of a real love of learning:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "He, who from day to day recognizes what he has not yet, and from month to month does not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeed to love to learn."

 

<a name="docA1906">

Chapter 6

  子夏曰:「博學而篤志,切問而近思,仁在其中矣。」

How learning should be pursued to lead to virtue:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "There are learning extensively, and having a firm and sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with self-application:-- virtue is in such a course."

 

<a name="docA1907">

Chapter 7

  子夏曰:「百工居肆以成其事,君子學以致其道。」

Learning is the student's workshop:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "Mechanics have their shops to dwell in, in order to accomplish their works. The superior man learns, in order to reach to the utmost of his principles."

 

<a name="docA1908">

Chapter 8

  子夏曰:「小人之過也,必文。」

Glossing his faults the proof of the mean man:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "The mean man is sure to gloss his faults."

 

<a name="docA1909">

Chapter 9

  子夏曰:「君子有三變:望之儼然,卽之也溫,聽其言也厲。」

Changing appearances of the superior man to others:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "The superior man undergoes three changes. Looked at from a distance, he appears stern; when approached, he is mild; when he is heard to speak, his language is firm and decided."

 

<a name="docA1910">

Chapter 10

  子夏曰:「君子信而後勞其民,未信則以爲厲己也。信而後諫,未信則以爲謗己也。」

The importance of enjoying confidence to the right serving of superiors and ordering of inferiors:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "The superior man, having obtained their confidence, may then impose labors on his people. If he have not gained their confidence, they will think that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of his prince, one may then remonstrate with him. If he have not gained his confidence, the prince will think that he is vilifying him."

 

<a name="docA1911">

Chapter 11

  子夏曰:「大德不踰閑,小德出入可也。」

The great virtues demand the chief attention, and the small ones may be somewhat violated:-- Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "When a person does not transgress the boundary line in the great virtues, he may pass and repass it in the small virtues."

 

<a name="docA1912">

Chapter 12

  子游曰:「子夏之門人小子,當洒埽、應對、進退,則可矣,抑末也。本之則無。如之何?」

  子夏聞之曰:「噫!言游過矣!君子之道,孰先傳焉?孰後倦焉?譬諸草木,區以別矣。君子之道,焉可誣也?有始有卒者,其唯聖人乎?」

Tsze-hsiâ's defence of his own graduated methos of teaching:-- against Tsze-yû.
1. Tsze-yû said, "The disciples and followers of Tsze-hsiâ, in sprinkling and sweeping the ground, in answering and replying, in advancing and receding, are sufficiently accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning, and they are left ignorant of what is essential. -- How can they be acknowledged as sufficiently taught?"

2. Tsze-hsiâ heard of the remark and said, "Alas! Yen Yû is wrong. According to the way of the superior man in teaching, what departments are there which he considers of prime importance, and delivers? what are there which he considers of secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? But as in the case of plants, which are assorted according to their classes, so he deals with his disciples. How can the way of a superior man be such as to make fools of any of them? Is it not the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and the consummation of learning?"

 

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Chapter 13

  子夏曰:「仕而優則學,學而優則仕。」

The officer and the student should attend each to his proper work in the first instance:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "The officer, having discharged all his duties, should devote his leisure to learning. The student, having completed his learning, should apply himself to be an officer."

 

<a name="docA1914">

Chapter 14

  子游曰:「喪致乎哀而止。」

The trappings of mourning may be dispensed with:-- by Tsze-yû.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "Mourning, having been carried to the utmost degree of grief, should stop with that."

 

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Chapter 15

  子游曰:「吾友張也,爲難能也,然而未仁。」

Tsze-yû's opinion of Tzu-Chang, as minding high things too much.
Tsze-hsiâ said, "My friend Chang can do things which are hard to be done, but yet he is not perfectly virtuous."

 

<a name="docA1916">

Chapter 16

  曾子曰:「堂堂乎張也,難與並爲仁矣。」

The philosopher Tsang's opinion of Tzu-Chang, as too high-pitched for friendship.
The philosopher Tsang said, "How imposing is the manner of Chang! It is difficult along with him to practice virtue."

 

<a name="docA1917">

Chapter 17

  曾子曰:「吾聞諸夫子:‘人未有自致者也,必也親喪乎!’」

How grief for the loss of parents brings out the real nature of man:-- by Tsang Shan.
The philosopher Tsang said, "I heard this from our Master:-- 'Men may not have shown what is in them to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so, on the occasion of mourning for their parents."

 

<a name="docA1918">

Chapter 18

  曾子曰:「吾聞諸夫子:‘孟莊子之孝也,其他可能也;其不改父之臣與父之政,是難能也。’」

The filial piety of Mang Chwang:-- by Tsang Shan.
The philosopher Tsang said, "I have heard this from our Master:-- 'The filial piety of Mang Chwang, in other matters, was what other men are competent to, but, as seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his father's mode of government, it is difficult to be attained to.'"

 

<a name="docA1919">

Chapter 19

  孟氏使陽膚爲士師,問於曾子。

  曾子曰:「上失其道,民散久矣。如得其情,則哀矜而勿喜。」

How a criminal judge should cherish compassion in his administration of justice:-- by Tsang Shan.
The chief of the Mang family having appointed Yang Fû to be chief criminal judge, the latter consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, "The rulers have failed in their duties, and the people consequently have been disorganized, for a long time. When you have found out the truth of any accusation, be grieved for and pity them, and do not feel joy at your own ability."

 

<a name="docA1920">

Chapter 20

  子貢曰:「紂之不善,不如是之甚也。是以君子惡居下流,天下之惡皆歸焉。」

The danger of a bad name:-- by Tsze-kung.
Tsze-kung said, "Châu's wickedness was not so great as that name implies. Therefore, the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying situation, where all the evil of the world will flow in upon him."

 

<a name="docA1921">

Chapter 21

  子貢曰:「君子之過也,如日月之食焉。過也,人皆見之。更也,人皆仰之。」

The superior man does not conceal his errors, nor persist in them:-- by Tsze-kung.
Tsze-kung said, "The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon. He has his faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all men look up to him."

 

<a name="docA1922">

Chapter 22

  衞公孫朝問於子貢曰:「仲尼焉學?」

  子貢曰:「文武之道,未墜於地,在人。賢者識其大者,不賢者識其小者,莫不有文武之道焉。夫子焉不學?而亦何常師之有?」

Confucius's sources of knowledge were the recollections and traditions of the priciples of Wan and Wû:-- by Tsze-kung.
1. Kung-sun Ch'âo of Wei asked Tsze-kung, saying. "From whom did Chung-nî get his learning?"

2. Tsze-kung replied, "The doctrines of Wan and Wû have not yet fallen to the ground. They are to be found among men. Men of talents and virtue remember the greater principles of them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue, remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan and Wû. Where could our Master go that he should not have an opportunity of learning them? And yet what necessity was there for his having a regular master?"

 

<a name="docA1923">

Chapter 23

  叔孫武叔語大夫於朝曰:「子貢賢於仲尼。」

  子服景伯以告子貢。

  子貢曰:「譬之宮牆。賜之牆也及肩,闚見室家之好。夫子之牆數仞,不得其門而入,不見宗廟之美,百官之富。得其門者或寡矣。夫子之云,不亦宜乎?」

Tsze-kung repudiates being thought superior to Confucius, and, by the comparison of a house and wall, shows how ordinary people could not understand the Master.
1. Shû-sun Wû-shû observed to the great officers in the court, saying, "Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-nî."

2. Tsze-fû Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-kung, who said, "Let me use the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. My wall only reaches to the shoulders. One may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in the apartments.

3. "The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one do not find the door and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties, nor all the officers in their rich array.

4. "But I may assume that they are few who find the door. Was not the observation of the chief only what might have been expected?"

 

<a name="docA1924">

Chapter 24

  叔孫武叔毀仲尼。

  子貢曰:「無以爲也!仲尼不可毀也。他人之賢者,丘陵也,猶可踰也。仲尼,日月也,無得而踰焉。人雖欲自絕,其何傷於日月乎?多見其不知量也!」

Confucius is like the sun or moon, high above the reach of depreciation:-- by Tsze-kung.
Shû-sun Wû-shû having spoken revilingly of Chung-nî, Tsze-kung said, "It is of no use doing so. Chung-nî cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other men are hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-nî is the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although a man may wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows that he does not know his own capacity.

 

<a name="docA1925">

Chapter 25

  陳子禽謂子貢曰:「子爲恭也!仲尼豈賢於子乎?」

  子貢曰:「君子一言以爲知,一言以爲不知,言不可不愼也!夫子之不可及也,猶天之不可階而升也。夫子之得邦家者,所謂‘立之斯立,道之斯行,綏之斯來,動之斯和。其生也榮,其死也哀’, 如之何其可及也?」

Confucius can be no more equalled than the heavens can be climbed:-- by Tsze-kung.
1. Ch'an Tsze-ch'in, addressing Tsze-kung, said, "You are too modest. How can Chung-nî be said to be superior to you?"

2. Tsze-kung said to him, "For one word a man is often deemed to be wise, and for one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in what we say.

3. "Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way as the heavens cannot be gone up by the steps of a stair.

4. "Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a state or the chief of a family, we should find verified the description which has been given of a sage's rule:-- he would plant the people, and forthwith they would be established; he would lead them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions; he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would be harmonious. While he lived, he would be glorious. When he died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for him to be attained to?"

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



<a name="docA2000">
2001, 2002, 2003

《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類



論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

堯曰第二十

Book XX: Yâo Yüeh

 

<a name="docA2001">

Chapter 1

  堯曰:「咨!爾舜!天之曆數在爾躬,允執其中。四海困窮,天祿永終。」

  舜亦以命禹。

  曰:「予小子履,敢用玄牡,敢昭告于皇皇后帝:有罪不敢赦。帝臣不蔽,簡在帝心。朕躬有罪,無以萬方。萬方有罪,罪在朕躬。」

  周有大賚,善人是富。「雖有周親,不如仁人。百姓有過,在予一人。」

  謹權量,審法度,脩廢官,四方之政行焉。興滅國,繼絕世,舉逸民,天下之民歸心焉。

  所重:民、食、喪、祭。

  寬則得眾,信則民任焉,敏則有功,公則說。

Priciples and ways of Yâo, Shun, Yü, T'ang, and Wû.
1. Yâo said, "Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-determined order of succession now rests in your person. Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. If there shall be distress and want within the four seas, the Heavenly revenue will come to a perpetual end."

2. Shun also used the same language in giving charge to Yû.

3. T'ang said, "I, the child Lî, presume to use a dark-colored victim, and presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God, that the sinner I dare not pardon, and thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I commit offenses, they are not to be attributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions commit offenses, these offenses must rest on my person."

4. Châu conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.

5. "Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to my virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me, the One man."

6. He carefully attended to the weights and measures, examined the body of the laws, restored the discarded officers, and the good government of the kingdom took its course.

7. He revived states that had been extinguished, restored families whose line of succession had been broken, and called to office those who had retired into obscurity, so that throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turned towards him.

8. What he attached chief importance to were the food of the people, the duties of mourning, and sacrifices.

9. By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made the people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted.

 

<a name="docA2002">

Chapter 2

  子張問於孔子曰:「何如斯可以從政矣?」

  子曰:「尊五美,屏四惡,斯可以從政矣。」

  子張曰:「何謂五美?」

  子曰:「君子惠而不費,勞而不怨,欲而不貪,泰而不驕,威而不猛。」

  子張曰:「何謂惠而不費?」

  子曰:「因民之所利而利之,斯不亦惠而不費乎?擇可勞而勞之,又誰怨?欲仁而得仁,又焉貪?君子無眾寡,無小大,無敢慢,斯不亦泰而不驕乎!君子正其衣冠,尊其瞻視,儼然人望而畏之,斯不亦威而不猛乎?」

  子張曰:「何謂四惡?」

  子曰:「不教而殺謂之虐,不戒視成謂之暴,慢令致期謂之賊。猶之與人也,出納之吝,謂之有司。」

How government may be conducted with efficiency, by honouring five excellent things, and putting away four bad things:-- a conversation with Tzu-Chang.
1. Tzu-Chang asked Confucius, saying, "In what way should a person in authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?" The Master replied, "Let him honor the five excellent, and banish away the four bad, things;-- then may he conduct government properly." Tzu-Chang said, "What are meant by the five excellent things?" The Master said, "When the person in authority is beneficent without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on the people without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce."

2. Tzu-Chang said, "What is meant by being beneficent without great expenditure?" The Master replied, "When the person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit;-- is not this being beneficent without great expenditure? When he chooses the labors which are proper, and makes them labor on them, who will repine? When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he secures it, who will accuse him of covetousness? Whether he has to do with many people or few, or with things great or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;-- is not this to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that, thus dignified, he is looked at with awe;-- is not this to be majestic without being fierce?"

3. Tzu-Chang then asked, "What are meant by the four bad things?" The Master said, "To put the people to death without having instructed them;-- this is called cruelty. To require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without having given them warning;-- this is called oppression. To issue orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when the time comes, to insist on them with severity;-- this is called injury. And, generally, in the giving pay or rewards to men, to do it in a stingy way;-- this is called acting the part of a mere official."

 

<a name="docA2003">

Chapter 3

  孔子曰:「不知命,無以爲君子也。不知禮,無以立也。不知言,無以知人也。」

The ordinances of Heaven, the rules of Propriety, and the force of Words, all necessary to be known.
1. The Master said, "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.

2. "Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it is impossible for the character to be established.

3. "Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men."

 

(《Confucian Analects》)



<a name="docB001">
自 由 人 網 頁 及 登 報 呼 聲
<a name="docB002">
103,05,04,03,22 劉鑫漢下載
2014-05-04-03-22 Liu,Hsinhan download
學而第一   Book I, Hsio R
http://www.cnculture.net/ebook/jing/sishu/lunyu_en/01.html

爲政第二   Book II, Wei Chang
103,05,04,03,25
http://www.cnculture.net/ebook/jing/sishu/lunyu_en/02.html

<a name="docB003">
八佾第三   Book III, Pa Yih
103,05,04,03,26
http://www.cnculture.net/ebook/jing/sishu/lunyu_en/03.html

里仁第四   Book IV, Le Jin
103,05,04,03,27
http://www.cnculture.net/ebook/jing/sishu/lunyu_en/04.html

<a name="docB004">
公冶長第五  Book V, Kung-Yê Ch'ang
103,05,04,03,27
http://www.cnculture.net/ebook/jing/sishu/lunyu_en/05.html

雍也第六   Book VI, Yung Yêy
103,05,04,03,27
http://www.cnculture.net/ebook/jing/sishu/lunyu_en/06.html

<a name="docB005">
述而第七   Book VII, Shu R
103,05,04,03,28
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泰伯第八   Book VIII, T'âi-po
103,05,04,03,28
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子罕第九   Book IX, Tsze Han
103,05,04,03,29
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鄉黨第十   Book X, Hsiang Tang
103,05,04,03,29
http://www.cnculture.net/ebook/jing/sishu/lunyu_en/10.html

<a name="docB007">
先進第十一  Book XI, Hsien Chin
103,05,04,03,29
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顔淵第十二  Book XII, Yen Yûan
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2014-05-04-03-30 Liu,Hsinhan download
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子路第十三  Book XIII, Tsze-Lû
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憲問第十四  Book XIV, Hsien Wen
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衞靈公第十五 Book XV, Wei Ling Kung
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季氏第十六  Book XVI, Chi Shih
103,05,04,03,31
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陽貨第十七  Book XVII, Yang Ho
103,05,04,03,31
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微子第十八  Book XVIII, Wei Tzu
103,05,04,03,32
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子張第十九  Book XIX, Tzu-Chang
103,05,04,03,32
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堯曰第二十  Book XX, Yâo Yüeh
103,05,04,03,32
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<a name="docA001">

2014-07-08-13-05 start 
Start from 2014-01-03 to 2014-06-30 
Liu,Hsinhan sign world guestbook. 
Main point is to introduce great circle 
generator program 
http://freeman2.com/gcircle2.htm 
and complex number calculator program 
http://freeman2.com/complex4.htm 
This file readme_20140708.htm is a 
document for 2014-May and 2014_June 
activity. 
<a name="docA002">
Start from 05/11/2014 11:32 AM 66,189
2014gd77_exam_Singapore.htm 
sign Singapore guestbook. 
Next day 05/12/2014  11:14 AM 29,271 
2014gd85_long_Japan.htm 
sign Japan guestbook. 
2014-05-17 and 2014-05-18 sign Korea 
guestbook. 
2014-05-19 and 2014-06-02 sign Mongolia 
guestbook. 
2014-06-03 to 2014-06-30 sign Chinese 
guestbook. 

<a name="docA003">
2014-05-12-16-50 done sign Japanese 
guestbook, 2014gd88_three_graph_Japan.htm
Liu,Hsinhan pop up an idea that 
Confucian Analects
http://freeman2.com/analects.htm 
is popular in Eastern Asia, Japan, 
Korea, Mongolia and China. LiuHH 
should build Confucian Analects web 
page. Start from 2014-05-12-19-04 
to 2014-05-13-11-01 finish build 
Confucian Analects.

<a name="docA004">
2014-05-13-11-27 upload to 
http://freeman2.com/analects.htm
2014-05-13-14-32 sign Japanese gbk 
05/13/2014  02:32 PM  43,106 2014gd89_Japan.htm
first time include Confucian Analects 
URL to guestbook. Please visit 
2014-05-13-14-28 2014gd89_japan.htm
http://kyushu-u.bbs.wox.cc/
2014-07-08-13-27 here 

<a name="docA005">

2014-07-09-12-00 start 
In Liu,Hsinhan message 
http://freeman2.com/2014glst.htm#2014textEn
used two section of Confucius words 

First section:
Ancient Chinese words
子曰:「父母在,不遠遊,遊必有方。」

Modern English words (Victory's Yamen)
Confucius remarked: "While his parents are 
living, a son should not go far abroad. If 
he does, he should let parents know where 
he goes."

Modern Chinese words (Ch 181.1 C748-1)
孔子說:「父母在世時,不可外出遠遊;如果不得已要
外出遠遊,也必有一定的去向告訴父母,以免父母憂心
。」

<a name="docA006">
Second section:
Ancient Chinese words
子貢問曰:「有一言而可以終身行之者乎?」
子曰:「其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施於人。」

Modern English words (Victory's Yamen)
Student TzuGong ask: "Is there one word 
which may guide one person in practice 
throughout his whole life?" 
Confucius answered: "The word 'charity' is 
perhaps the word. What you do not wish 
others do to you, you do not do to them." 

Modern Chinese words (Ch 181.1 C748-1)
子貢問道:「有一個字可以做為終身奉行的準則嗎?」
孔子說:「大概就是『恕』字吧!自己所不喜歡的,不
要加在別人身上。」

<a name="docA007">
Both can be found in 
http://freeman2.com/analects.htm
Find first "... let parents know ..." at 
http://freeman2.com/analects.htm#docA0419
"... he must have a fixed place to which he goes. ..."

Find second "... word 'charity' ..." at 
http://freeman2.com/analects.htm#docA1523
"Is not RECIPROCITY such a word? ..."

Alert! Reader can find blue words in analects.htm
Reader can NOT find red words in analects.htm
Blue is translated by James Legge
 Red is translated by Victory's Yamen
analects.htm record James Legge work.

<a name="docA008">
Please pay attention to next three points.
1. Confucian Analects is a standard text 
   book for elementary school students 
   for two thousand years. ( 兒童啟蒙讀物 )
   Both selected words clearly indicate 
   this point.
<a name="docA009">
2. English version in 
   http://freeman2.com/analects.htm 
   is translated by James Legge ,1893
   English version in Liu,Hsinhan message
   http://freeman2.com/2014glst.htm#2014textEn
   is translated by Victory's Yamen, Wuchang 
   1st August, 1898. 
   Library book number Ch 181.1 C748-1
   Los Angeles Public Library withdrawn 
   Liu,Hsinhan bought on 2004-11-13 paid $1.00
<a name="docA010">
3. *** MOST IMPORTANT *** 
   If reader translate Confucian Analects to
   third language (1st Chinese, 2nd English)
   Please start translation from modern English 
   version, 
   NOT start translation from ancient Chinese 
   version.
   Next explain why. 

<a name="docA011">

English version (Victory's Yamen)
Confucius remarked: "While his parents are 
living, a son should not go far abroad. If 
he does, he should let parents know where 
he goes."
English version (James Legge)
The Master said, "While his parents are alive, 
the son may not go abroad to a distance. If he 
does go abroad, he must have a fixed place to 
which he goes."
Its ancient Chinese version is 
子曰:「父母在,不遠遊,遊必有方。」
<a name="docA012">
Next is word by word translation 
       (reader try translate.google.com/)
子 Confucius ( 子 commonly used as son 
        son=young man, call a man "young man"
        that is polite words. The words 子曰 
        mean "Confucius said" )
曰 say (ancient Chinese usage, modern 說)
:  :
「  " (start quote)
父 father 
母 mother 
在 exist (commonly used as AT somewhere
    father at office, mother at home,
    must be both alive, both exist.)
,  (object 'a son' omitted)
不 not 
遠 far 
遊 travel (walk around, sight seeing) 
, ("If he does", "otherwise" omitted)
遊 travel 
必 must 
有 have 
方 square (direction, East,South,West,North
   four direction [four sides] is "square"
   'direction' in Chinese is 方向 short 方)
。 period ('let parents know' omitted)
」 (close quote)

<a name="docA013">
Ancient Chinese language is a very compact 
language. 
Parents (father and mother) are used, then 
object must be "a son", no ambiguity ,
therefore "a son" is omitted. 
"If he does", "otherwise" is not necessary 
in ancient Chinese language, because first 
word is "not far travel" then second word 
"travel ..." must be "otherwise" structure.
Since "otherwise" is a 'must be' , omit.
"travel must have direction" is not for son 
to know, implicitly, for parents to know.
If not for parents to know, who else? No 
ambiguity. Omit "he should let parents know".

<a name="docA014">
2014-07-08-23-11
Liu,Hsinhan used ancient Chinese version 
子曰:「父母在,不遠遊,遊必有方。」
ask https://translate.google.com/ to 
translate to English. google return next 
Confucius said: "Parents, do not travel 
to distant lands, You must be square." 
Please compare with human translation
'You must be square' is not as good as 
'travel must have square' !!

<a name="docA015">
Above blue words result is 
poor than Victory's Yamen translation 
and poor than James Legge translation. 
If you translate Confucian Analects 
please start from James Legge ,1893 
English version. There is no omitted 
words. translate.google.com result is 
much better.
Certainly you can start translation from 
modern Chinese version, which state idea 
much clear than ancient Chinese, that is 
ancient Chinese has omit, and 
 modern Chinese do not omit. 
<a name="docA016">

But in the file 
http://freeman2.com/analects.htm 
there is no modern Chinese. analects.htm 
has only ancient Chinese and modern English.
Perhaps reader can go online and find modern 
Chinese version Confucian Analects and start 
translation from modern Chinese. LiuHH do 
not have modern Chinese electronic version 
Confucian Analects in hands.
LiuHH have no time to input modern Chinese 
paper book version to electronic version. 

<a name="docA017">
Not only Chinese has ancient Chinese and 
modern Chinese difference. Many language 
in the world have same difference,  
ancient language and modern language. 
All ancient languages are hard to read 
for modern citizen.
2014-07-09-12-36 here 

//from docA005 to docA017 was done partially 
//in 2014-07-08 and partially in 2014-07-09

<a name=a41111a>
104,11,11,20,11 始
104,11,08,20,20 找到妹妹下載的朗讀論語 02:28:24(時:分:秒)
01/02/2014  12:01 AM 142,474,377 analect1.mp3
朗讀者是黃欣玉、慧晶、慧慧、靜晨、潔等人,可能的網址是
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tH0odCiayo
104,11,10,11,09 劉鑫漢在 youtube.com  查詢「論語」
https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=%E8%AB%96%E8%AA%9E
找到悟勝法師恭讀論語二十卷。並且找到 
William Jennings 翻譯 ; 李菁朗誦的論語二十卷
於是決定把網路資源加入《論語》網頁
http://freeman2.com/analects.htm
在 audiolunyu 有完整的工作記錄。
104,11,11,20,31 止

<a name=a41111e>

2015-11-11-20-36 start
update 2015-11-11 added online "Analects of Confucius" 
audio files URL. Next two are whole audio books 
"Words of Confucius", 697,403,668 bytes
William Jennings translation, 286,951,312 bytes
Next is William Jennings translation audio book 
in 21 files 
https://archive.org/details/analects_confucius_1303_librivox
More record see audio_book 
2015-11-11-20-46 stop



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自由人小傳,英文版,大同小異。89,01,18,22,54. Freeman's biography in English: 2000-01-18-22-54. http://freeman2.com/bioge001.htm Next page is "Why choose 2001-09-11 to attack W.T.C?" This page is a part of Freeman's biography 2004-12-19-11-09 http://freeman2.com/200109a2.htm 103,05,12,19,04 copy biogc004.htm analects.htm 本頁《論語》地址為 http://freeman2.com/analects.htm

本頁建立於中華民國一◯三年五月十二日 本頁至此結束 謝謝光臨 自由人 劉鑫漢 103,05,12,19,05